Jover’s Report and Outline

UNIT II- BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND WHOLE LANGUAGE

1.INSTRUCTIONAL BELIEFS- sabatler & Jenkin Smith (1993-199) theorize that the beliefs of an advocacy groups perceptions and actions in the political arena. group actions in turn influence policy makers responses and the subsequent plicy outcomes. one they set of commonly held beliefs about reading focuses on how reading should be taught, especially in the early grades. Phoenics advocates call for explicit direct and systematic skills instruction that emphasizes the alphabetical principle, phoenimic awareness, word recognition, decoding and the relationship between words and spellings. in contrast, proponents of whole language undescore the importance of literature based reading. meaing construction for purposefull functions, student-centeredness, teacher empowerment and the naturalness of reading acquisition in reading instruction.

2.READING MATERIALS hand outs (reading group, main idea, conclusions, judgements, inference, pointof view, the figures of speech, signed words) hand outs ( speed reading) hand outs (vocabulary) hand outs (study skills, outlining) hand outs (test taking skills and dictionary skills)

 3. CURRICULUM DESIGNED People can’t intelligently discuss and communicate with others about curriculum without first making every clear what their interpretation of a curriculum is. In this chapter we will be thinking of a curriculum is a written plan for the educational program of a school. Curriculum designed them will consists of these considerations having to do with the contents. The form and the arrangement of the various elements of a curriculum. We distinguish between curriculum planning and instructional planning with curriculum planning being the antecedent task.

 4. CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT Is your classroom literacy-friendly? You have an important role in providing the children in your classroom with some of their first experiences with books and reading book around your classroom and think about you do with the children.

5. COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT This intervention will help your child to increase her/his understanding of reading and language and develop confidence in the learning process. – read orally to your child (short stories, poems, news articles) – read a story and have your child predict what will happen next – Read a story did have your child change the ending. – take time to talk to your child about everything ins his/her environment

2 Responses to Jover’s Report and Outline

  1. Henry M. Aroz says:

    Word Recognition Skills and Strategies
    The following are widely acknowledged as skills that readers use to identify printed words.
    Instant Recognition
    Mature readers identify words with remarkable speed and accuracy. Indeed, fluent word identification appears to be a prerequisite for comprehending text. If a reader must slowly analyze many of the words in a text, memory and attention needed for comprehension are drained by word analysis.
    Beginning readers recognize very few words instantly. Through repeated exposure to the same words, instant recognition vocabulary grows. It is particularly important that developing readers learn to recognize those words that occur very frequently in print. A mere 100 words make up a full 50 percent of the words read, even by adults. The, and, to, you, he, it, and said are examples of these high-frequency words. Developing readers also need to learn to recognize high-frequency words instantly because many of them are not phonically regular. Based on phonics generalizations, to should rhyme with go, said should rhyme with paid, and so on.
    Children’s ability to recognize words can be developed by teachers’ pointing out the words, by a variety of game-like activities, and by writing those words. However, it appears that instant recognition of words, especially high-frequency words, develops best when students read large amounts of text, particularly text that is relatively easy for the reader (Cunningham, 1995).
    Context Clues to Develop Recognition Skills
    There is a good research base for concluding that students can use meaning or context clues to help identify words and that instruction can help improve their use of such clues (Johnson & Baumann, 1984).
    Three different types of context clues are frequently distinguished:
    • Semantic or Meaning Clues. There are general semantic clues. For example, when reading a story about cats, good readers develop the expectation that it will contain words associated with cats, such as tail, purr, and whiskers. Sentence context clues are more specific. In the sentence “My cat likes to _____,” given the sentence context and what most of us know about cats, words like play, jump, and scratch seem reasonable.
    • Syntactic or Word Order Clues. In the previous example, the order of the words in the sentence indicates that the missing word must be a verb. Other parts of speech, such as adjectives (nice, brown) or nouns (man, fence), make no sense or don’t result in what sounds like a real sentence.
    • Picture Clues. Illustrations can often help with the identification of a word. In the example, if a picture of a cat leaping through the air accompanies the text, jump seems a very good possibility.
    Context clues are often helpful, but they often are not specific enough to predict the exact word. Often several choices are possible, as in the example given. However, when context clues are combined with other clues such as phonics and word-part clues (for example, the sounds associated with j and mp), accurate word identification is usually possible.
    Context clues allow readers to “crosscheck” their identification of words. For example, a reader encountering the word scratch for the first time should look carefully at the letters of the word, apply what he or she knows about phonics and word parts, and check to be sure that an attempted pronunciation matches the letter clues. In addition, the reader should always crosscheck to be sure that the word makes sense in terms of syntactic and semantic cues. Cunningham (1995) offers examples of activities that build and extend children’s crosschecking activities.
    Word Structure Clues
    There are many groups of letters that occur frequently in words. These are generally perceived by more mature readers as clusters of letters. Among these letter groups are prefixes (un-, re-, in-), suffixes (-ful, -ness, -est), and inflectional endings (-ed, -ing, -es). Common prefixes, suffixes, and inflectional endings should be pointed out to students. Being able to associate sounds with a cluster of letters leads to more rapid, efficient word identification.
    Analogy Clues
    As readers build an increasing store of words that they can recognize with little effort, they use the words they know to help them recognize words that are unfamiliar. For example, a child who has seen the word will many times and who knows the sound associated with the consonant f will probably have little difficulty recognizing the word fill. Building phonemic awareness for onsets and rimes builds a foundation for being able to identify simple words and syllables by analogy. Many teachers encourage developing readers to use analogy strategies by engaging students in word family (man, ran, pan) and initial consonant substitution (“What word would I have if I changed the m in man to an r?”) activities. One clear advantage to the use of analogy strategies is that vowels, which can be variable in the sounds they represent, are much more stable within rimes (-eam).
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    Phonics Instruction
    By: National Reading Panel (2000)
    Phonics instruction is a way of teaching reading that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling.
    The primary focus of phonics instruction is to help beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes) to form letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns and to help them learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading.
    Phonics instruction may be provided systematically or incidentally. The hallmark of a systematic phonics approach or program is that a sequential set of phonics elements is delineated and these elements are taught along a dimension of explicitness depending on the type of phonics method employed. Conversely, with incidental phonics instruction, the teacher does not follow a planned sequence of phonics elements to guide instruction but highlights particular elements opportunistically when they appear in text.
    Types of phonics instructional methods and approaches
    This table depicts several different types of phonics instructional approaches that vary according to the unit of analysis or how letter-sound combinations are represented to the student. For example, in synthetic phonics approaches, students are taught to link an individual letter or letter combination with its appropriate sound and then blend the sounds to form words. In analytic phonics, students are first taught whole word units followed by systematic instruction linking the specific letters in the word with their respective sounds.
    Phonics instruction can also vary with respect to the explicitness by which the phonic elements are taught and practiced in the reading of text. For example, many synthetic phonics approaches use direct instruction in teaching phonics components and provide opportunities for applying these skills in decodable text formats characterized by a controlled vocabulary. On the other hand, embedded phonics approaches are typically less explicit and use decodable text for practice less frequently, although the phonics concepts to be learned can still be presented systematically.
    • Analogy phonics
    Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words (e.g., recognizing that the rime segment of an unfamiliar word is identical to that of a familiar word, and then blending the known rime with the new word onset, such as reading brick by recognizing that -ick is contained in the known word kick, or reading stump by analogy to jump).
    • Analytic phonics
    Teaching students to analyze letter-sound relations in previously learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation.
    • Embedded phonics
    Teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading, a more implicit approach that relies to some extent on incidental learning.
    • Phonics through spelling
    Teaching students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes (i.e., teaching students to spell words phonemically).
    • Synthetic phonics
    Teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (phonemes) and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.
    Findings and determinations
    The meta-analysis revealed that systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read. The ability to read and spell words was enhanced in kindergartners who received systematic beginning phonics instruction. First graders who were taught phonics systematically were better able to decode and spell, and they showed significant improvement in their ability to comprehend text. Older children receiving phonics instruction were better able to decode and spell words and to read text orally, but their comprehension of text was not significantly improved.
    Systematic synthetic phonics instruction (see table for definition) had a positive and significant effect on disabled readers’ reading skills. These children improved substantially in their ability to read words and showed significant, albeit small, gains in their ability to process text as a result of systematic synthetic phonics instruction. This type of phonics instruction benefits both students with learning disabilities and low-achieving students who are not disabled. Moreover, systematic synthetic phonics instruction was significantly more effective in improving low socioeconomic status (SES) children’s alphabetic knowledge and word reading skills than instructional approaches that were less focused on these initial reading skills.
    Across all grade levels, systematic phonics instruction improved the ability of good readers to spell. The impact was strongest for kindergartners and decreased in later grades. For poor readers, the impact of phonics instruction on spelling was small, perhaps reflecting the consistent finding that disabled readers have trouble learning to spell.
    Although conventional wisdom has suggested that kindergarten students might not be ready for phonics instruction, this assumption was not supported by the data. The effects of systematic early phonics instruction were significant and substantial in kindergarten and the 1st grade, indicating that systematic phonics programs should be implemented at those age and grade levels.
    The NRP analysis indicated that systematic phonics instruction is ready for implementation in the classroom. Findings of the Panel regarding the effectiveness of explicit, systematic phonics instruction were derived from studies conducted in many classrooms with typical classroom teachers and typical American or English-speaking students from a variety of backgrounds and socioeconomic levels.
    Thus, the results of the analysis are indicative of what can be accomplished when explicit, systematic phonics programs are implemented in today’s classrooms. Systematic phonics instruction has been used widely over a long period of time with positive results, and a variety of systematic phonics programs have proven effective with children of different ages, abilities, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
    Discussion
    These facts and findings provide converging evidence that explicit, systematic phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful classroom reading program. However, there is a need to be cautious in giving a blanket endorsement of all kinds of phonics instruction.
    It is important to recognize that the goals of phonics instruction are to provide children with key knowledge and skills and to ensure that they know how to apply that knowledge in their reading and writing. In other words, phonics teaching is a means to an end.
    To be able to make use of letter-sound information, children need phonemic awareness. That is, they need to be able to blend sounds together to decode words, and they need to break spoken words into their constituent sounds to write words. Programs that focus too much on the teaching of letter-sound relations and not enough on putting them to use are unlikely to be very effective.
    In implementing systematic phonics instruction, educators must keep the end in mind and ensure that children understand the purpose of learning letter sounds and that they are able to apply these skills accurately and fluently in their daily reading and writing activities.
    Of additional concern is the often-heard call for “intensive, systematic” phonics instruction. Usually the term “intensive” is not defined. How much is required to be considered intensive?
    In addition, it is not clear how many months or years a phonics program should continue. If phonics has been systematically taught in kindergarten and 1st grade, should it continue to be emphasized in 2nd grade and beyond? How long should single instruction sessions last? How much ground should be covered in a program? Specifically, how many letter-sound relations should be taught, and how many different ways of using these relations to read and write words should be practiced for the benefits of phonics to be maximized? These questions remain for future research.
    Another important area is the role of the teacher. Some phonics programs showing large effect sizes require teachers to follow a set of specific instructions provided by the publisher; while this may standardize the instructional sequence, it also may reduce teacher interest and motivation.
    Thus, one concern is how to maintain consistency of instruction while still encouraging the unique contributions of teachers. Other programs require a sophisticated knowledge of spelling, structural linguistics, or word etymology. In view of the evidence showing the effectiveness of systematic phonics instruction, it is important to ensure that the issue of how best to prepare teachers to carry out this teaching effectively and creatively is given high priority.
    Knowing that all phonics programs are not the same brings with it the implication that teachers must themselves be educated about how to evaluate different programs to determine which ones are based on strong evidence and how they can most effectively use these programs in their own classrooms. It is therefore important that teachers be provided with evidence-based preservice training and ongoing inservice training to select (or develop) and implement the most appropriate phonics instruction effectively.
    A common question with any instructional program is whether “one size fits all.” Teachers may be able to use a particular program in the classroom but may find that it suits some students better than others. At all grade levels, but particularly in kindergarten and the early grades, children are known to vary greatly in the skills they bring to school. Some children will already know letter-sound correspondences, and some will even be able to decode words, while others will have little or no letter knowledge.
    Teachers should be able to assess the needs of the individual students and tailor instruction to meet specific needs. However, it is more common for phonics programs to present a fixed sequence of lessons scheduled from the beginning to the end of the school year. In light of this, teachers need to be flexible in their phonics instruction in order to adapt it to individual student needs.
    Children who have already developed phonics skills and can apply them appropriately in the reading process do not require the same level and intensity of phonics instruction provided to children at the initial phases of reading acquisition. Thus, it will also be critical to determine objectively the ways in which systematic phonics instruction can be optimally incorporated and integrated in complete and balanced programs of reading instruction. Part of this effort should be directed at preservice and inservice education to provide teachers with decision-making frameworks to guide their selection, integration, and implementation of phonics instruction within a complete reading program.
    Teachers must understand that systematic phonics instruction is only one component – albeit a necessary component – of a total reading program; systematic phonics instruction should be integrated with other reading instruction in phonemic awareness, fluency, and comprehension strategies to create a complete reading program.
    While most teachers and educational decision-makers recognize this, there may be a tendency in some classrooms, particularly in 1st grade, to allow phonics to become the dominant component, not only in the time devoted to it, but also in the significance attached. It is important not to judge children’s reading competence solely on the basis of their phonics skills and not to devalue their interest in books because they cannot decode with complete accuracy. It is also critical for teachers to understand that systematic phonics instruction can be provided in an entertaining, vibrant, and creative manner.
    Systematic phonics instruction is designed to increase accuracy in decoding and word recognition skills, which in turn facilitate comprehension. However, it is again important to note that fluent and automatic application of phonics skills to text is another critical skill that must be taught and learned to maximize oral reading and reading comprehension. This issue again underscores the need for teachers to understand that while phonics skills are necessary in order to learn to read, they are not sufficient in their own right. Phonics skills must be integrated with the development of phonemic awareness, fluency, and text reading comprehension skills.
    References
    References
    Click the “References” link above to hide these references.
    Cooper, H., & Hedges, L.V. (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Durkin, D. (1993). Teaching them to read (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Harris, T., & Hodges, R. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary (p. 207). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Snow, C. E., Burns, S. M., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Whipple, G. (Ed.). (1925). The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education: Report of the National Committee on Reading. Bloomington, IL: Public School Publishing Company.
    References
    Cooper, H., & Hedges, L.V. (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Durkin, D. (1993). Teaching them to read (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Harris, T., & Hodges, R. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary (p. 207). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Snow, C. E., Burns, S. M., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Whipple, G. (Ed.). (1925). The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education: Report of the National Committee on Reading. Bloomington, IL: Public School Publishing Company.
    Excerpted from: National Reading Panel. (April, 2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
    Related Topics: > Curriculum and instruction
    > Phonics and decoding
    Teaching Effectively > > What You Should Know About… > > Phonics

    http://www.readingrockets.org/article/254

    Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility
    By: David J. Chard and Jean Osborn (1999)
    Abstract
    This article examines the content and instructional plans of phonics and word recognition to be used with children with reading disabilities. Information is provided about the content of effective word- recognition instruction. Guidelines are included based on this information as well as on 4 other aspects of reading instruction (i.e., oral language development, print awareness, reading aloud, and independent wide reading) that are central to any accessible and effective classroom program. These guidelines will assist educators in selecting programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read.
    The goals of reading instruction are many, but certainly include that children will read with confidence, that they will understand what they read, and that they will find reading a source of knowledge and pleasure. To achieve these goals with all children, an effective classroom program of beginning reading instruction must provide children with a wide variety of experiences that relate to a number of important aspects of reading.
    Some of these experiences focus on meaning. For example, children take part in oral language activities that concentrate on concept and vocabulary development; children hear good stories and informational texts read aloud; they read and discuss with other children what they read, often under the guidance of their teachers.
    Other experiences focus on word recognition of printed words as children engage in print awareness, letter recognition, writing, and spelling activities. Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print materials, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional time.
    Word-recognition Instruction
    Many publishers – both large and small – have developed programs of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Some of the phonics and word-recognition instruction are integrated in large basal reading programs and others are in supplemental programs narrowly focused to address one aspect of instruction. Many teachers teach phonics and word recognition by using the district’s commercially published basal reading program, typically a program of instruction that includes grade-level materials for teaching reading with a teacher’s guide and student reading materials as well as ancillary materials that support the primary components. These programs often contain phonics and word-recognition activities embedded in a sequence of instruction that includes shared reading from children’s literature, guided reading in predictable stories, and writing activities.
    These commercially published basal reading programs are particularly important because they are typically adopted by a school or district and become the cornerstone of instruction for most classrooms. Recent reviews of the major commercial programs (Smith et al., in press; Stein, Johnson, & Gutlohn, 1998) have revealed that word- recognition instruction and instruction in oral language skills related to word recognition were inadequately represented. Stein et al. found that few programs included an explicit phonics approach, and student reading selections often did not correspond to the words children were learning during word-recognition instruction making most of the selections inaccessible to the readers.
    In addition to the basal programs, teachers often supplement their regular instruction with published phonics programs. These programs are commonly used with students identified as having reading disabilities. Many parents seek out such programs to use at home if they are concerned that their children are experiencing difficulty learning to read in school. There are literally hundreds of supplementary programs on the market, and new programs appear regularly. These programs take many forms. Many appear in traditional print form that feature board and card games, flash cards, word lists, story books, and workbooks. Some combine traditional instructional materials with audiotapes, electronic games, videotapes, and computer discs. Still other programs provide essentially all instruction by computer.
    This article is designed to be used to examine the content and instructional plans of phonics and word-recognition instruction to be used with children with reading disabilities. The purpose of the article, however, is not to explore the many meanings, interpretations, and merits of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Rather, the purpose of the article is to help those who intend to use commercially published programs of instruction to make good choices that will benefit both teachers and students with reading disabilities. Such an examination can provide information about the content of a program’s word-recognition instruction and its suitability for providing access to the general curriculum for students with reading disabilities.
    The content of phonics and word-recognition instruction
    Although the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only a part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998). The main goal of such instruction is to help children figure out the alphabetic system of written English and become comfortable with that system as they become readers (Lyon, 1998). The authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), written almost a decade ago, nicely described the goal, purpose, and limitations of phonics instruction:
    The goal of phonics is not that children be able to state the “rules” governing letter-sound relationships. Rather, the purpose is to get across the alphabetic principle, the principle that there are systematic relationships between letters and sounds.
    Phonics ought to be conceived as a technique for getting children off to a fast start in mapping the relationships between letters and sounds. It follows that phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly lay bare the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. (p. 38)
    Phonics then is the system of instruction used to teach children the connection between letters and sounds (Snow et al., 1998). We do want to warn the reader, however, that this term is entirely abused and has many different meanings to different people. A generally agreed on definition may not be possible.
    The alphabetic principle
    An important part of helping children with reading disabilities figure out the system underlying the printed word is leading them to understand the alphabetic principle (Adams, 1990; Ehri & McCormick, 1998; Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 199 1). This means, to understand that in written English, words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken English words. Some children seem to figure out the alphabetic principle almost effortlessly, with little or no instruction. However, most children, and children with learning disabilities (LD) in particular, benefit from organized instruction that centers on sounds, letters, and the relations between sounds and letters (Perfetti & Zhang, 1995). They also benefit from word -recognition instruction that offers practice with, for example, word families that share similar letter patterns. Additionally, children with reading disabilities benefit from opportunities to apply what they are learning to the reading and rereading of stories and other texts. Such texts contain a high proportion of words that reflect the letters, sounds, and spelling patterns the children are learning.
    Elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction
    To help children map the relations between letters and sounds, effective phonics and word-recognition strategy instruction should provide them with opportunities to become comfortable with a number of aspects of reading, including alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relations, word-identification strategies, spelling and writing connections, related reading practice, and reading fluency.
    Each of these elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction is discussed in this section. Each discussion is followed by a set of guidelines for program evaluators to consider as they examine programs. We relied on the following sources for determining what is most important to phonics and word-recognition instruction:
    • Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children The National Academy of Sciences report
    • Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (Adams, 1990), several primary research studies, and secondary reviews of research that are noted in the guidelines. At this point, it is important to note that, although many of these guidelines are based on empirical research, others are based on a logical analysis of learning tasks and effective classroom practice.
    Alphabetic knowledge
    Children must become expert users of the letters they will see and use to write their own words and messages (Lyon, 1998). Children’s knowledge of letters is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read. Children whose knowledge of letters is not well developed when they start school need a lot of sensibly organized practice that will help them learn how to identify, name, and write letters.
    Guidelines for alphabetic knowledge instruction
    A beginning reading program should include the following elements:
    1. A variety of alphabetic knowledge activities in which children learn to identify and name both upper case and lower case letters.
    2. Games, songs, and other activities that help children learn to name letters quickly.
    3. Writing activities that encourage children to practice writing the letters they are learning.
    4. A sensible sequence of letter introduction that can be adjusted to the needs of the children.
    Phonemic awareness
    Children’s ability to think about individual words as sequences of sounds is important to their understanding of the alphabetic principle (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985; Snow et al., 1998). Toward that understanding, children learn to identify rhyming words and to create their own rhymes. They also learn that sentences are made up of separate words, words are composed of syllables, and words are made up of sounds that can be separated from each other and manipulated in other ways. Finally, they learn that sounds that are separated (or segmented) from words can be put back together again to form words.
    Some children have a great deal of difficulty learning to separate, or segment, the sounds in spoken words, and to then reconstitute the sounds (i.e., to blend the segmented sounds back together to make a word; O’Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, 1996). However, it is this very aspect of phonemic awareness that enables children to apply their knowledge of sound-letter relations to the sounding out of printed words (Smith, Simmons, & Karneenui, 1998).
    It is important to make some clear distinctions: Phonemes are the separable individual sounds in words. They are the smallest units of sound. The onset is the initial single phoneme or initial consonant cluster in a word and the rime is the remaining set of phonemes in a word. Rimes are larger than phonemes, but smaller than syllables.
    For example, take bat and bright, both one-syllable words:
    in bat, the onset is /b/ and the rime is /at/;
    in bright, the onset is /br/ and the rime is /ight/.
    In contrast:
    bat contains three phonemes – /b/ /a/ /t/;
    bright contains four phonemes – /b/ /r/ /i/ /t/.
    Most sequencing of phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming words and then moves to helping children learn how to divide (or segment) sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onset and rime, and finally, one-syllable words into phonemes.
    Not all programs include the same content. For example, some programs introduce onsets and rimes before requiring students to identify and manipulate each of the separable sounds of one- syllable words. Some programs do not include onset and rime activities. In many programs, segmentation is introduced by having children identify and segment the initial sound of a one- syllable word. After practicing with initial sounds, the children then learn to identify and segment final sounds, and finally work with medial sounds. Still other programs have children learn to segment and then blend each individual sound of spoken one-syllable words.
    Phonemic awareness activities usually involve oral tasks in the absence of print. In some programs, however, the instruction directs the children to use auditory (clapping) and visual cues (Elkonin boxes, blocks) to help them understand that the sounds in words can be separate entities. At the more advanced levels of instruction (segmenting and blending), the relations of sounds to written letters often become part of the instructional sequence, so that the children hear and see the relations between sounds and letters.
    Guidelines for phonemic awareness instruction
    A beginning reading program should include the following elements:
    1. Activities that follow a sequence of instruction that progresses from easier to more difficult tasks and from larger to smaller units, for example:
    o Rhyming words.
    o Dividing sentences into words.
    o Dividing words into syllables.
    o Segmenting and blending onsets and rimes.
    o Identifying beginning, medial, and ending sounds in spoken words.
    o Segmenting and blending individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
    2. Auditory (e.g., clapping), visual (e.g., tiles, chips), or both cues to help children identify separate sounds in words.
    3. Activities to teach the relationship of letters to sounds in more advanced tasks (segmenting and blending phonemes).
    4. For children who are having difficulty, a sequence of instruction that:
    1. Starts with continuous sounds (for example, m, s, i, f) that are easier to hear and blend.
    2. Advises teachers to stretch out and connect (or “sing”) the sounds (e.g., “ssssaaaammm,” rather than separating them, for example, “S … a … m”).
    Sound-letter relations
    Children’s early reading development is dependent on their acquisition of the sound-letter relations that underlie written English. Many children with reading disabilities benefit from explicit and systematic teaching of these sound-letter relations; this is typically described as or labeled phonics. Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998).
    Phonics instruction is usually categorized as explicit or implicit. In explicit phonics instruction, the sounds associated with the letters are identified in isolation and then blended together to form words. The teacher directly tells students the sound represented by an individual letter. For example, “The letter l makes the sound /llll/.” When children have learned several correspondences, including one or two vowels, they can read words by blending sounds of the letters together. For example, students who have learned the sound-letter correspondences /I / /a/ /m/ and /p/ can utilize a blending strategy to read “lamp.”
    In contrast, implicit phonics instruction includes helping students identify the sounds associated with individual letters in the context of whole words, rather than in isolation. Typically, students are asked to infer the sound of a letter from a word or set of words that contain that letter. For example, in teaching the sound for m, the teacher is directed to:
    Write man on the board and underline the letter m.
    Have the students say man and listen for the beginning sound. Elicit from the students that the letter m makes the sound /m/.
    In implicit phonics, children are often encouraged to utilize context and picture cues to identify any unfamiliar words they encounter in text selections. Most supplementary programs employ explicit instruction.
    Rate and sequence of introduction
    There is no set rule about how quickly or how slowly to introduce sound-letter relations. Obviously, it is important to gauge the rate of introduction by the performance of the group of children with whom the program is being used. Furthermore, there is no agreed on order in which to introduce sound-letter relations. The advice most often given is to avoid programs that teach all possible sound-letter relations before providing real reading practice. Rather, the sound-letter relations should be selected so that the children can read words as soon as possible. That is, the initial sound-letter relations presented in a program should have high utility. For example, m, a, t, and th are of high utility, whereas gh as in through, ey as in they, and a as in want are of less high utility. It should be noted that programs that present all of the consonants before any of the vowels are taught do not allow children to read words, even after they have learned several sound-letter relations.
    An effective program may start with two or more single consonants and one or two short vowels. The children can read words that are spelled with these letters. Then, more single consonants and more short vowels are added, along with perhaps a long vowel. As each new sound-letter relation is introduced, the children read words spelled with those letters. For example, if the relationships for a, f, n, s, and t, are presented first, the children can work with the words fan, an, at, ant, fast, and fat among others. Then if the relations for m, th, c, and i are added, the children can work with such words as if, cat, sat, man, and that. The children can create sentences such as, “A fast ant sat on a fat cat.”
    Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., br, tr) may be added; digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ch) are often introduced to permit children to read words such as this, she, and chair. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty.
    The number of possible variations is enormous. The point is that the order of introduction should be logical and consistent with the rate at which the children can learn. Furthermore, the sound-letter relations chosen should permit the children to work with words almost immediately.
    Guidelines for examining sound-letter relations instruction
    • Plan of instruction. A beginning reading program should include:
    1. Common sound-letter relations taught directly and explicitly.
    2. Advanced phonemic awareness activities combined with the presentation of sound-letter relations.
    3. Opportunities for children to practice sound-letter relations in every lesson.
    4. Practice opportunities that include new sound-letter relations as well as cumulative review of previously taught relations.
    5. Opportunities early and often for children to apply their expanding knowledge of sound-letter relations to the reading of regularly spelled words that are familiar in meaning.
    6. A suggestion that the teacher or students point to the letters as they sound out the words.
    • Rate of instruction. A beginning reading program should:
    1. Recognize that children learn sound-letter relations at different rates.
    2. Introduce sound-letter relations at a reasonable pace (e.g., in a range of two to four per week, depending on student performance).
    3. Encourage teachers to informally assess children’s application of sound-letter relations and to use this information to make instructional decisions.
    • Sequence of instruction. A beginning reading program should:
    1. Introduce consonants and vowels in a sequence that permits the children to read words.
    2. Choose consonants and vowels that can be combined to make words for the children to read.
    3. Teach a number of high-utility sound-letter relations first and add lower utility relations later.
    4. Introduce consonant blends or clusters in separate lessons.
    5. Provide blending instruction with words that contain the sound-letter relations that the children are learning.
    Word-recognition strategies
    Effective word-recognition strategies permit children to quickly and automatically translate the letters or spelling patterns of written words into speech sounds so that they can identify words and gain rapid access to their meanings (Vandervelden & Siegel, 1997). Children must learn to identify words quickly and effortlessly so that they can focus on the meaning of what they are reading (Stanovich, 1986). As children learn to read more and more complex stories, effective word-identification strategies will permit them to figure out the pronunciations of words they have never seen before in print. Students’ semantic and syntactic knowledge, in turn, can help to confirm the accuracy of their attempts at word identification.
    It is important that children learn to use their sound and spelling knowledge as a primary strategy for word recognition (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997; Beck, 1998). Children should also have opportunities to work with larger units (e.g., word families, spelling patterns, and onsets and rimes). More advanced word- identification strategies focus on structural analysis – the identification of root words, prefixes, and suffixes – and on how to read multisyllabic words.Children need to recognize some common words before they have the sound-letter knowledge to sound them out (e.g., the, this). Additionally, some words are “irregular,” meaning they are difficult to read using a sounding out strategy. The program should introduce some irregular and other sight words in a reasonable sequence. These words should be continuously reviewed in the lessons and in the written materials the children read. Presenting some words as sight words should not overshadow the importance of teaching children to learn how to use word-identification strategies to figure out words.
    Guidelines for addressing word-identification strategies
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Opportunities to practice word recognition, including words with newly introduced sound-letter relations or word parts mixed with previously learned words.
    2. Opportunities for children to learn to use word order (syntax) and word meaning (semantics) to confirm the words identified through word-recognition strategies (Adams, 1998).
    3. A limited set of sight words (some of which are regularly spelled) in the beginning stages of reading instruction.
    4. Phonetically irregular words in a reasonable order and review the words cumulatively.
    5. Phonetically irregular words in the written materials the students read.
    6. Opportunities for children not only to decode words but also to access the words’ meanings.
    7. Strategies for identifying words with more than one syllable.
    Spelling and writing
    Children with reading disabilities must have opportunities to write and relate their writing to spelling and reading. Initially, children’s phonetic approximations of words or invented spellings should be encouraged to stimulate writing (Ehri, 1998; Snow et al., 1998). As children learn to read and write words, they become aware of how these words are spelled. Increasing children’s awareness of spelling patterns hastens their progress in both reading and writing. In the first grade, spelling instruction can be coordinated with the program of reading instruction. As children progress, well-organized, systematic lessons in spelling are critical.
    Guidelines for effective spelling and writing activities
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Spelling activities that are related to the words that children are reading and writing.
    2. Guides to move children from their own temporary spellings to more standard spellings.
    3. Spelling instruction with explicit instruction in sound-letter relations and word-identification strategies.
    4. Lessons that help children attend to spelling patterns.
    5. Purpose-filled writing activities that permit children to respond to what is read to them and to what they read, express themselves creatively, and communicate with others.
    Related reading practice
    Most children benefit from opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in stories. The term decodable text is used to describe stories and other materials that use the sound-letter relations the children are learning as well as a limited number of high-frequency sight words. Decodable text may also contain a limited number of “special words” that make the text more interesting. Decodable stories can provide children with reading disabilities with the opportunity to practice what they are learning about letters and sounds. For example, if the children know these sound-letter relations – m /m/, s /s/, t /t/, p /p/, e /e/, and a /a/ and the special words the, elephant, said, no, and thank you – they can read a story such as:
    • Pat and the Elephant
    • Pat met the elephant.
    • The elephant met Pat.
    • Pat sat.
    • The elephant sat.
    • The elephant sat on the mats.
    • The elephant sat and sat.
    • Pat sat and sat.
    • Pat said, “Elephant, pat the pets.”
    • The pets said, “No, thank you, Elephant.”
    In addition to decodable books, many predictable and patterned books provide children with engaging language and print experiences. These books may be most beneficial when children are developing print awareness. Typically these books are not based on the sound-letter relations, spelling patterns, and sight words the children are learning. For example:
    • Two Cats Play
    • Two cats play on the grass.
    • Two cats play with yarn.
    • Two cats play with a ball.
    • Two cats play all day.
    • Two cats too tired to play.
    Many children benefit from practice with stories that contain a high proportion of decodable or familiar words. For some children, this sort of systematic approach is critical.
    Stories should “fit” the child’s reading level. As children with reading disabilities become more proficient, a wider range of books become readable to them. The decodability or predictability of the books is no longer a constraint. There is little research that directly address the level of decodability of texts that best facilitates children’s reading fluency. Different sources have recommended different levels of decodability. For example, Anderson et al. (1985) and Juel (1994) both recommended approximately 90% of the words in a story should be decodable. As children learn to read words, sentences, and stories fluently, accurately, and automatically, they no longer have to struggle to identify words and are free to pay closer attention to word meanings.
    Guidelines for decodable text for related reading practice
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Stories that have a significant proportion of decodable words.
    2. A sequence of stories, such that the sound-letter relations the children have learned are cumulatively reviewed in the words of the stories.
    3. Stories that are comprehensible.
    4. Words in the stories that are in the children’s spoken vocabularies.

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    Jover’s Report and Outline | Developmental Reading

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