About

This site is created for the students of BEED , BSED  and Diploma in Teaching at Sultan Kudarat State University – Glan Extension.

105 Responses to About

  1. Henry M. Aroz says:

    Submitting my Report:
    Word Recognition Skills and Strategies
    The following are widely acknowledged as skills that readers use to identify printed words.
    Instant Recognition
    Mature readers identify words with remarkable speed and accuracy. Indeed, fluent word identification appears to be a prerequisite for comprehending text. If a reader must slowly analyze many of the words in a text, memory and attention needed for comprehension are drained by word analysis.
    Beginning readers recognize very few words instantly. Through repeated exposure to the same words, instant recognition vocabulary grows. It is particularly important that developing readers learn to recognize those words that occur very frequently in print. A mere 100 words make up a full 50 percent of the words read, even by adults. The, and, to, you, he, it, and said are examples of these high-frequency words. Developing readers also need to learn to recognize high-frequency words instantly because many of them are not phonically regular. Based on phonics generalizations, to should rhyme with go, said should rhyme with paid, and so on.
    Children’s ability to recognize words can be developed by teachers’ pointing out the words, by a variety of game-like activities, and by writing those words. However, it appears that instant recognition of words, especially high-frequency words, develops best when students read large amounts of text, particularly text that is relatively easy for the reader (Cunningham, 1995).
    Context Clues to Develop Recognition Skills
    There is a good research base for concluding that students can use meaning or context clues to help identify words and that instruction can help improve their use of such clues (Johnson & Baumann, 1984).
    Three different types of context clues are frequently distinguished:
    • Semantic or Meaning Clues. There are general semantic clues. For example, when reading a story about cats, good readers develop the expectation that it will contain words associated with cats, such as tail, purr, and whiskers. Sentence context clues are more specific. In the sentence “My cat likes to _____,” given the sentence context and what most of us know about cats, words like play, jump, and scratch seem reasonable.
    • Syntactic or Word Order Clues. In the previous example, the order of the words in the sentence indicates that the missing word must be a verb. Other parts of speech, such as adjectives (nice, brown) or nouns (man, fence), make no sense or don’t result in what sounds like a real sentence.
    • Picture Clues. Illustrations can often help with the identification of a word. In the example, if a picture of a cat leaping through the air accompanies the text, jump seems a very good possibility.
    Context clues are often helpful, but they often are not specific enough to predict the exact word. Often several choices are possible, as in the example given. However, when context clues are combined with other clues such as phonics and word-part clues (for example, the sounds associated with j and mp), accurate word identification is usually possible.
    Context clues allow readers to “crosscheck” their identification of words. For example, a reader encountering the word scratch for the first time should look carefully at the letters of the word, apply what he or she knows about phonics and word parts, and check to be sure that an attempted pronunciation matches the letter clues. In addition, the reader should always crosscheck to be sure that the word makes sense in terms of syntactic and semantic cues. Cunningham (1995) offers examples of activities that build and extend children’s crosschecking activities.
    Word Structure Clues
    There are many groups of letters that occur frequently in words. These are generally perceived by more mature readers as clusters of letters. Among these letter groups are prefixes (un-, re-, in-), suffixes (-ful, -ness, -est), and inflectional endings (-ed, -ing, -es). Common prefixes, suffixes, and inflectional endings should be pointed out to students. Being able to associate sounds with a cluster of letters leads to more rapid, efficient word identification.
    Analogy Clues
    As readers build an increasing store of words that they can recognize with little effort, they use the words they know to help them recognize words that are unfamiliar. For example, a child who has seen the word will many times and who knows the sound associated with the consonant f will probably have little difficulty recognizing the word fill. Building phonemic awareness for onsets and rimes builds a foundation for being able to identify simple words and syllables by analogy. Many teachers encourage developing readers to use analogy strategies by engaging students in word family (man, ran, pan) and initial consonant substitution (“What word would I have if I changed the m in man to an r?”) activities. One clear advantage to the use of analogy strategies is that vowels, which can be variable in the sounds they represent, are much more stable within rimes (-eam).
    http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/rec.html

  2. Henry M. Aroz says:

    Cont. of my Report
    Phonics Instruction
    By: National Reading Panel (2000)
    Phonics instruction is a way of teaching reading that stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling.
    The primary focus of phonics instruction is to help beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes) to form letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns and to help them learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading.
    Phonics instruction may be provided systematically or incidentally. The hallmark of a systematic phonics approach or program is that a sequential set of phonics elements is delineated and these elements are taught along a dimension of explicitness depending on the type of phonics method employed. Conversely, with incidental phonics instruction, the teacher does not follow a planned sequence of phonics elements to guide instruction but highlights particular elements opportunistically when they appear in text.
    Types of phonics instructional methods and approaches
    This table depicts several different types of phonics instructional approaches that vary according to the unit of analysis or how letter-sound combinations are represented to the student. For example, in synthetic phonics approaches, students are taught to link an individual letter or letter combination with its appropriate sound and then blend the sounds to form words. In analytic phonics, students are first taught whole word units followed by systematic instruction linking the specific letters in the word with their respective sounds.
    Phonics instruction can also vary with respect to the explicitness by which the phonic elements are taught and practiced in the reading of text. For example, many synthetic phonics approaches use direct instruction in teaching phonics components and provide opportunities for applying these skills in decodable text formats characterized by a controlled vocabulary. On the other hand, embedded phonics approaches are typically less explicit and use decodable text for practice less frequently, although the phonics concepts to be learned can still be presented systematically.
    • Analogy phonics
    Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words (e.g., recognizing that the rime segment of an unfamiliar word is identical to that of a familiar word, and then blending the known rime with the new word onset, such as reading brick by recognizing that -ick is contained in the known word kick, or reading stump by analogy to jump).
    • Analytic phonics
    Teaching students to analyze letter-sound relations in previously learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation.
    • Embedded phonics
    Teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading, a more implicit approach that relies to some extent on incidental learning.
    • Phonics through spelling
    Teaching students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes (i.e., teaching students to spell words phonemically).
    • Synthetic phonics
    Teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (phonemes) and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.
    Findings and determinations
    The meta-analysis revealed that systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read. The ability to read and spell words was enhanced in kindergartners who received systematic beginning phonics instruction. First graders who were taught phonics systematically were better able to decode and spell, and they showed significant improvement in their ability to comprehend text. Older children receiving phonics instruction were better able to decode and spell words and to read text orally, but their comprehension of text was not significantly improved.
    Systematic synthetic phonics instruction (see table for definition) had a positive and significant effect on disabled readers’ reading skills. These children improved substantially in their ability to read words and showed significant, albeit small, gains in their ability to process text as a result of systematic synthetic phonics instruction. This type of phonics instruction benefits both students with learning disabilities and low-achieving students who are not disabled. Moreover, systematic synthetic phonics instruction was significantly more effective in improving low socioeconomic status (SES) children’s alphabetic knowledge and word reading skills than instructional approaches that were less focused on these initial reading skills.
    Across all grade levels, systematic phonics instruction improved the ability of good readers to spell. The impact was strongest for kindergartners and decreased in later grades. For poor readers, the impact of phonics instruction on spelling was small, perhaps reflecting the consistent finding that disabled readers have trouble learning to spell.
    Although conventional wisdom has suggested that kindergarten students might not be ready for phonics instruction, this assumption was not supported by the data. The effects of systematic early phonics instruction were significant and substantial in kindergarten and the 1st grade, indicating that systematic phonics programs should be implemented at those age and grade levels.
    The NRP analysis indicated that systematic phonics instruction is ready for implementation in the classroom. Findings of the Panel regarding the effectiveness of explicit, systematic phonics instruction were derived from studies conducted in many classrooms with typical classroom teachers and typical American or English-speaking students from a variety of backgrounds and socioeconomic levels.
    Thus, the results of the analysis are indicative of what can be accomplished when explicit, systematic phonics programs are implemented in today’s classrooms. Systematic phonics instruction has been used widely over a long period of time with positive results, and a variety of systematic phonics programs have proven effective with children of different ages, abilities, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
    Discussion
    These facts and findings provide converging evidence that explicit, systematic phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful classroom reading program. However, there is a need to be cautious in giving a blanket endorsement of all kinds of phonics instruction.
    It is important to recognize that the goals of phonics instruction are to provide children with key knowledge and skills and to ensure that they know how to apply that knowledge in their reading and writing. In other words, phonics teaching is a means to an end.
    To be able to make use of letter-sound information, children need phonemic awareness. That is, they need to be able to blend sounds together to decode words, and they need to break spoken words into their constituent sounds to write words. Programs that focus too much on the teaching of letter-sound relations and not enough on putting them to use are unlikely to be very effective.
    In implementing systematic phonics instruction, educators must keep the end in mind and ensure that children understand the purpose of learning letter sounds and that they are able to apply these skills accurately and fluently in their daily reading and writing activities.
    Of additional concern is the often-heard call for “intensive, systematic” phonics instruction. Usually the term “intensive” is not defined. How much is required to be considered intensive?
    In addition, it is not clear how many months or years a phonics program should continue. If phonics has been systematically taught in kindergarten and 1st grade, should it continue to be emphasized in 2nd grade and beyond? How long should single instruction sessions last? How much ground should be covered in a program? Specifically, how many letter-sound relations should be taught, and how many different ways of using these relations to read and write words should be practiced for the benefits of phonics to be maximized? These questions remain for future research.
    Another important area is the role of the teacher. Some phonics programs showing large effect sizes require teachers to follow a set of specific instructions provided by the publisher; while this may standardize the instructional sequence, it also may reduce teacher interest and motivation.
    Thus, one concern is how to maintain consistency of instruction while still encouraging the unique contributions of teachers. Other programs require a sophisticated knowledge of spelling, structural linguistics, or word etymology. In view of the evidence showing the effectiveness of systematic phonics instruction, it is important to ensure that the issue of how best to prepare teachers to carry out this teaching effectively and creatively is given high priority.
    Knowing that all phonics programs are not the same brings with it the implication that teachers must themselves be educated about how to evaluate different programs to determine which ones are based on strong evidence and how they can most effectively use these programs in their own classrooms. It is therefore important that teachers be provided with evidence-based preservice training and ongoing inservice training to select (or develop) and implement the most appropriate phonics instruction effectively.
    A common question with any instructional program is whether “one size fits all.” Teachers may be able to use a particular program in the classroom but may find that it suits some students better than others. At all grade levels, but particularly in kindergarten and the early grades, children are known to vary greatly in the skills they bring to school. Some children will already know letter-sound correspondences, and some will even be able to decode words, while others will have little or no letter knowledge.
    Teachers should be able to assess the needs of the individual students and tailor instruction to meet specific needs. However, it is more common for phonics programs to present a fixed sequence of lessons scheduled from the beginning to the end of the school year. In light of this, teachers need to be flexible in their phonics instruction in order to adapt it to individual student needs.
    Children who have already developed phonics skills and can apply them appropriately in the reading process do not require the same level and intensity of phonics instruction provided to children at the initial phases of reading acquisition. Thus, it will also be critical to determine objectively the ways in which systematic phonics instruction can be optimally incorporated and integrated in complete and balanced programs of reading instruction. Part of this effort should be directed at preservice and inservice education to provide teachers with decision-making frameworks to guide their selection, integration, and implementation of phonics instruction within a complete reading program.
    Teachers must understand that systematic phonics instruction is only one component – albeit a necessary component – of a total reading program; systematic phonics instruction should be integrated with other reading instruction in phonemic awareness, fluency, and comprehension strategies to create a complete reading program.
    While most teachers and educational decision-makers recognize this, there may be a tendency in some classrooms, particularly in 1st grade, to allow phonics to become the dominant component, not only in the time devoted to it, but also in the significance attached. It is important not to judge children’s reading competence solely on the basis of their phonics skills and not to devalue their interest in books because they cannot decode with complete accuracy. It is also critical for teachers to understand that systematic phonics instruction can be provided in an entertaining, vibrant, and creative manner.
    Systematic phonics instruction is designed to increase accuracy in decoding and word recognition skills, which in turn facilitate comprehension. However, it is again important to note that fluent and automatic application of phonics skills to text is another critical skill that must be taught and learned to maximize oral reading and reading comprehension. This issue again underscores the need for teachers to understand that while phonics skills are necessary in order to learn to read, they are not sufficient in their own right. Phonics skills must be integrated with the development of phonemic awareness, fluency, and text reading comprehension skills.
    http://www.readingrockets.org/article/254

    Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility
    By: David J. Chard and Jean Osborn (1999)
    Abstract
    This article examines the content and instructional plans of phonics and word recognition to be used with children with reading disabilities. Information is provided about the content of effective word- recognition instruction. Guidelines are included based on this information as well as on 4 other aspects of reading instruction (i.e., oral language development, print awareness, reading aloud, and independent wide reading) that are central to any accessible and effective classroom program. These guidelines will assist educators in selecting programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read.
    The goals of reading instruction are many, but certainly include that children will read with confidence, that they will understand what they read, and that they will find reading a source of knowledge and pleasure. To achieve these goals with all children, an effective classroom program of beginning reading instruction must provide children with a wide variety of experiences that relate to a number of important aspects of reading.
    Some of these experiences focus on meaning. For example, children take part in oral language activities that concentrate on concept and vocabulary development; children hear good stories and informational texts read aloud; they read and discuss with other children what they read, often under the guidance of their teachers.
    Other experiences focus on word recognition of printed words as children engage in print awareness, letter recognition, writing, and spelling activities. Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print materials, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional time.
    Word-recognition Instruction
    Many publishers – both large and small – have developed programs of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Some of the phonics and word-recognition instruction are integrated in large basal reading programs and others are in supplemental programs narrowly focused to address one aspect of instruction. Many teachers teach phonics and word recognition by using the district’s commercially published basal reading program, typically a program of instruction that includes grade-level materials for teaching reading with a teacher’s guide and student reading materials as well as ancillary materials that support the primary components. These programs often contain phonics and word-recognition activities embedded in a sequence of instruction that includes shared reading from children’s literature, guided reading in predictable stories, and writing activities.
    These commercially published basal reading programs are particularly important because they are typically adopted by a school or district and become the cornerstone of instruction for most classrooms. Recent reviews of the major commercial programs (Smith et al., in press; Stein, Johnson, & Gutlohn, 1998) have revealed that word- recognition instruction and instruction in oral language skills related to word recognition were inadequately represented. Stein et al. found that few programs included an explicit phonics approach, and student reading selections often did not correspond to the words children were learning during word-recognition instruction making most of the selections inaccessible to the readers.
    In addition to the basal programs, teachers often supplement their regular instruction with published phonics programs. These programs are commonly used with students identified as having reading disabilities. Many parents seek out such programs to use at home if they are concerned that their children are experiencing difficulty learning to read in school. There are literally hundreds of supplementary programs on the market, and new programs appear regularly. These programs take many forms. Many appear in traditional print form that feature board and card games, flash cards, word lists, story books, and workbooks. Some combine traditional instructional materials with audiotapes, electronic games, videotapes, and computer discs. Still other programs provide essentially all instruction by computer.
    This article is designed to be used to examine the content and instructional plans of phonics and word-recognition instruction to be used with children with reading disabilities. The purpose of the article, however, is not to explore the many meanings, interpretations, and merits of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Rather, the purpose of the article is to help those who intend to use commercially published programs of instruction to make good choices that will benefit both teachers and students with reading disabilities. Such an examination can provide information about the content of a program’s word-recognition instruction and its suitability for providing access to the general curriculum for students with reading disabilities.
    The content of phonics and word-recognition instruction
    Although the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only a part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998). The main goal of such instruction is to help children figure out the alphabetic system of written English and become comfortable with that system as they become readers (Lyon, 1998). The authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), written almost a decade ago, nicely described the goal, purpose, and limitations of phonics instruction:
    The goal of phonics is not that children be able to state the “rules” governing letter-sound relationships. Rather, the purpose is to get across the alphabetic principle, the principle that there are systematic relationships between letters and sounds.
    Phonics ought to be conceived as a technique for getting children off to a fast start in mapping the relationships between letters and sounds. It follows that phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly lay bare the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. (p. 38)
    Phonics then is the system of instruction used to teach children the connection between letters and sounds (Snow et al., 1998). We do want to warn the reader, however, that this term is entirely abused and has many different meanings to different people. A generally agreed on definition may not be possible.
    The alphabetic principle
    An important part of helping children with reading disabilities figure out the system underlying the printed word is leading them to understand the alphabetic principle (Adams, 1990; Ehri & McCormick, 1998; Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 199 1). This means, to understand that in written English, words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken English words. Some children seem to figure out the alphabetic principle almost effortlessly, with little or no instruction. However, most children, and children with learning disabilities (LD) in particular, benefit from organized instruction that centers on sounds, letters, and the relations between sounds and letters (Perfetti & Zhang, 1995). They also benefit from word -recognition instruction that offers practice with, for example, word families that share similar letter patterns. Additionally, children with reading disabilities benefit from opportunities to apply what they are learning to the reading and rereading of stories and other texts. Such texts contain a high proportion of words that reflect the letters, sounds, and spelling patterns the children are learning.
    Elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction
    To help children map the relations between letters and sounds, effective phonics and word-recognition strategy instruction should provide them with opportunities to become comfortable with a number of aspects of reading, including alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relations, word-identification strategies, spelling and writing connections, related reading practice, and reading fluency.
    Each of these elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction is discussed in this section. Each discussion is followed by a set of guidelines for program evaluators to consider as they examine programs. We relied on the following sources for determining what is most important to phonics and word-recognition instruction:
    • Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children The National Academy of Sciences report
    • Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (Adams, 1990), several primary research studies, and secondary reviews of research that are noted in the guidelines. At this point, it is important to note that, although many of these guidelines are based on empirical research, others are based on a logical analysis of learning tasks and effective classroom practice.
    Alphabetic knowledge
    Children must become expert users of the letters they will see and use to write their own words and messages (Lyon, 1998). Children’s knowledge of letters is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read. Children whose knowledge of letters is not well developed when they start school need a lot of sensibly organized practice that will help them learn how to identify, name, and write letters.
    Guidelines for alphabetic knowledge instruction
    A beginning reading program should include the following elements:
    1. A variety of alphabetic knowledge activities in which children learn to identify and name both upper case and lower case letters.
    2. Games, songs, and other activities that help children learn to name letters quickly.
    3. Writing activities that encourage children to practice writing the letters they are learning.
    4. A sensible sequence of letter introduction that can be adjusted to the needs of the children.
    Phonemic awareness
    Children’s ability to think about individual words as sequences of sounds is important to their understanding of the alphabetic principle (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985; Snow et al., 1998). Toward that understanding, children learn to identify rhyming words and to create their own rhymes. They also learn that sentences are made up of separate words, words are composed of syllables, and words are made up of sounds that can be separated from each other and manipulated in other ways. Finally, they learn that sounds that are separated (or segmented) from words can be put back together again to form words.
    Some children have a great deal of difficulty learning to separate, or segment, the sounds in spoken words, and to then reconstitute the sounds (i.e., to blend the segmented sounds back together to make a word; O’Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, 1996). However, it is this very aspect of phonemic awareness that enables children to apply their knowledge of sound-letter relations to the sounding out of printed words (Smith, Simmons, & Karneenui, 1998).
    It is important to make some clear distinctions: Phonemes are the separable individual sounds in words. They are the smallest units of sound. The onset is the initial single phoneme or initial consonant cluster in a word and the rime is the remaining set of phonemes in a word. Rimes are larger than phonemes, but smaller than syllables.
    For example, take bat and bright, both one-syllable words:
    in bat, the onset is /b/ and the rime is /at/;
    in bright, the onset is /br/ and the rime is /ight/.
    In contrast:
    bat contains three phonemes – /b/ /a/ /t/;
    bright contains four phonemes – /b/ /r/ /i/ /t/.
    Most sequencing of phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming words and then moves to helping children learn how to divide (or segment) sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onset and rime, and finally, one-syllable words into phonemes.
    Not all programs include the same content. For example, some programs introduce onsets and rimes before requiring students to identify and manipulate each of the separable sounds of one- syllable words. Some programs do not include onset and rime activities. In many programs, segmentation is introduced by having children identify and segment the initial sound of a one- syllable word. After practicing with initial sounds, the children then learn to identify and segment final sounds, and finally work with medial sounds. Still other programs have children learn to segment and then blend each individual sound of spoken one-syllable words.
    Phonemic awareness activities usually involve oral tasks in the absence of print. In some programs, however, the instruction directs the children to use auditory (clapping) and visual cues (Elkonin boxes, blocks) to help them understand that the sounds in words can be separate entities. At the more advanced levels of instruction (segmenting and blending), the relations of sounds to written letters often become part of the instructional sequence, so that the children hear and see the relations between sounds and letters.
    Guidelines for phonemic awareness instruction
    A beginning reading program should include the following elements:
    1. Activities that follow a sequence of instruction that progresses from easier to more difficult tasks and from larger to smaller units, for example:
    o Rhyming words.
    o Dividing sentences into words.
    o Dividing words into syllables.
    o Segmenting and blending onsets and rimes.
    o Identifying beginning, medial, and ending sounds in spoken words.
    o Segmenting and blending individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
    2. Auditory (e.g., clapping), visual (e.g., tiles, chips), or both cues to help children identify separate sounds in words.
    3. Activities to teach the relationship of letters to sounds in more advanced tasks (segmenting and blending phonemes).
    4. For children who are having difficulty, a sequence of instruction that:
    1. Starts with continuous sounds (for example, m, s, i, f) that are easier to hear and blend.
    2. Advises teachers to stretch out and connect (or “sing”) the sounds (e.g., “ssssaaaammm,” rather than separating them, for example, “S … a … m”).
    Sound-letter relations
    Children’s early reading development is dependent on their acquisition of the sound-letter relations that underlie written English. Many children with reading disabilities benefit from explicit and systematic teaching of these sound-letter relations; this is typically described as or labeled phonics. Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998).
    Phonics instruction is usually categorized as explicit or implicit. In explicit phonics instruction, the sounds associated with the letters are identified in isolation and then blended together to form words. The teacher directly tells students the sound represented by an individual letter. For example, “The letter l makes the sound /llll/.” When children have learned several correspondences, including one or two vowels, they can read words by blending sounds of the letters together. For example, students who have learned the sound-letter correspondences /I / /a/ /m/ and /p/ can utilize a blending strategy to read “lamp.”
    In contrast, implicit phonics instruction includes helping students identify the sounds associated with individual letters in the context of whole words, rather than in isolation. Typically, students are asked to infer the sound of a letter from a word or set of words that contain that letter. For example, in teaching the sound for m, the teacher is directed to:
    Write man on the board and underline the letter m.
    Have the students say man and listen for the beginning sound. Elicit from the students that the letter m makes the sound /m/.
    In implicit phonics, children are often encouraged to utilize context and picture cues to identify any unfamiliar words they encounter in text selections. Most supplementary programs employ explicit instruction.
    Rate and sequence of introduction
    There is no set rule about how quickly or how slowly to introduce sound-letter relations. Obviously, it is important to gauge the rate of introduction by the performance of the group of children with whom the program is being used. Furthermore, there is no agreed on order in which to introduce sound-letter relations. The advice most often given is to avoid programs that teach all possible sound-letter relations before providing real reading practice. Rather, the sound-letter relations should be selected so that the children can read words as soon as possible. That is, the initial sound-letter relations presented in a program should have high utility. For example, m, a, t, and th are of high utility, whereas gh as in through, ey as in they, and a as in want are of less high utility. It should be noted that programs that present all of the consonants before any of the vowels are taught do not allow children to read words, even after they have learned several sound-letter relations.
    An effective program may start with two or more single consonants and one or two short vowels. The children can read words that are spelled with these letters. Then, more single consonants and more short vowels are added, along with perhaps a long vowel. As each new sound-letter relation is introduced, the children read words spelled with those letters. For example, if the relationships for a, f, n, s, and t, are presented first, the children can work with the words fan, an, at, ant, fast, and fat among others. Then if the relations for m, th, c, and i are added, the children can work with such words as if, cat, sat, man, and that. The children can create sentences such as, “A fast ant sat on a fat cat.”
    Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., br, tr) may be added; digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ch) are often introduced to permit children to read words such as this, she, and chair. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty.
    The number of possible variations is enormous. The point is that the order of introduction should be logical and consistent with the rate at which the children can learn. Furthermore, the sound-letter relations chosen should permit the children to work with words almost immediately.
    Guidelines for examining sound-letter relations instruction
    • Plan of instruction. A beginning reading program should include:
    1. Common sound-letter relations taught directly and explicitly.
    2. Advanced phonemic awareness activities combined with the presentation of sound-letter relations.
    3. Opportunities for children to practice sound-letter relations in every lesson.
    4. Practice opportunities that include new sound-letter relations as well as cumulative review of previously taught relations.
    5. Opportunities early and often for children to apply their expanding knowledge of sound-letter relations to the reading of regularly spelled words that are familiar in meaning.
    6. A suggestion that the teacher or students point to the letters as they sound out the words.
    • Rate of instruction. A beginning reading program should:
    1. Recognize that children learn sound-letter relations at different rates.
    2. Introduce sound-letter relations at a reasonable pace (e.g., in a range of two to four per week, depending on student performance).
    3. Encourage teachers to informally assess children’s application of sound-letter relations and to use this information to make instructional decisions.
    • Sequence of instruction. A beginning reading program should:
    1. Introduce consonants and vowels in a sequence that permits the children to read words.
    2. Choose consonants and vowels that can be combined to make words for the children to read.
    3. Teach a number of high-utility sound-letter relations first and add lower utility relations later.
    4. Introduce consonant blends or clusters in separate lessons.
    5. Provide blending instruction with words that contain the sound-letter relations that the children are learning.
    Word-recognition strategies
    Effective word-recognition strategies permit children to quickly and automatically translate the letters or spelling patterns of written words into speech sounds so that they can identify words and gain rapid access to their meanings (Vandervelden & Siegel, 1997). Children must learn to identify words quickly and effortlessly so that they can focus on the meaning of what they are reading (Stanovich, 1986). As children learn to read more and more complex stories, effective word-identification strategies will permit them to figure out the pronunciations of words they have never seen before in print. Students’ semantic and syntactic knowledge, in turn, can help to confirm the accuracy of their attempts at word identification.
    It is important that children learn to use their sound and spelling knowledge as a primary strategy for word recognition (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997; Beck, 1998). Children should also have opportunities to work with larger units (e.g., word families, spelling patterns, and onsets and rimes). More advanced word- identification strategies focus on structural analysis – the identification of root words, prefixes, and suffixes – and on how to read multisyllabic words.Children need to recognize some common words before they have the sound-letter knowledge to sound them out (e.g., the, this). Additionally, some words are “irregular,” meaning they are difficult to read using a sounding out strategy. The program should introduce some irregular and other sight words in a reasonable sequence. These words should be continuously reviewed in the lessons and in the written materials the children read. Presenting some words as sight words should not overshadow the importance of teaching children to learn how to use word-identification strategies to figure out words.
    Guidelines for addressing word-identification strategies
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Opportunities to practice word recognition, including words with newly introduced sound-letter relations or word parts mixed with previously learned words.
    2. Opportunities for children to learn to use word order (syntax) and word meaning (semantics) to confirm the words identified through word-recognition strategies (Adams, 1998).
    3. A limited set of sight words (some of which are regularly spelled) in the beginning stages of reading instruction.
    4. Phonetically irregular words in a reasonable order and review the words cumulatively.
    5. Phonetically irregular words in the written materials the students read.
    6. Opportunities for children not only to decode words but also to access the words’ meanings.
    7. Strategies for identifying words with more than one syllable.
    Spelling and writing
    Children with reading disabilities must have opportunities to write and relate their writing to spelling and reading. Initially, children’s phonetic approximations of words or invented spellings should be encouraged to stimulate writing (Ehri, 1998; Snow et al., 1998). As children learn to read and write words, they become aware of how these words are spelled. Increasing children’s awareness of spelling patterns hastens their progress in both reading and writing. In the first grade, spelling instruction can be coordinated with the program of reading instruction. As children progress, well-organized, systematic lessons in spelling are critical.
    Guidelines for effective spelling and writing activities
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Spelling activities that are related to the words that children are reading and writing.
    2. Guides to move children from their own temporary spellings to more standard spellings.
    3. Spelling instruction with explicit instruction in sound-letter relations and word-identification strategies.
    4. Lessons that help children attend to spelling patterns.
    5. Purpose-filled writing activities that permit children to respond to what is read to them and to what they read, express themselves creatively, and communicate with others.
    Related reading practice
    Most children benefit from opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in stories. The term decodable text is used to describe stories and other materials that use the sound-letter relations the children are learning as well as a limited number of high-frequency sight words. Decodable text may also contain a limited number of “special words” that make the text more interesting. Decodable stories can provide children with reading disabilities with the opportunity to practice what they are learning about letters and sounds. For example, if the children know these sound-letter relations – m /m/, s /s/, t /t/, p /p/, e /e/, and a /a/ and the special words the, elephant, said, no, and thank you – they can read a story such as:
    • Pat and the Elephant
    • Pat met the elephant.
    • The elephant met Pat.
    • Pat sat.
    • The elephant sat.
    • The elephant sat on the mats.
    • The elephant sat and sat.
    • Pat sat and sat.
    • Pat said, “Elephant, pat the pets.”
    • The pets said, “No, thank you, Elephant.”
    In addition to decodable books, many predictable and patterned books provide children with engaging language and print experiences. These books may be most beneficial when children are developing print awareness. Typically these books are not based on the sound-letter relations, spelling patterns, and sight words the children are learning. For example:
    • Two Cats Play
    • Two cats play on the grass.
    • Two cats play with yarn.
    • Two cats play with a ball.
    • Two cats play all day.
    • Two cats too tired to play.
    Many children benefit from practice with stories that contain a high proportion of decodable or familiar words. For some children, this sort of systematic approach is critical.
    Stories should “fit” the child’s reading level. As children with reading disabilities become more proficient, a wider range of books become readable to them. The decodability or predictability of the books is no longer a constraint. There is little research that directly address the level of decodability of texts that best facilitates children’s reading fluency. Different sources have recommended different levels of decodability. For example, Anderson et al. (1985) and Juel (1994) both recommended approximately 90% of the words in a story should be decodable. As children learn to read words, sentences, and stories fluently, accurately, and automatically, they no longer have to struggle to identify words and are free to pay closer attention to word meanings.
    Guidelines for decodable text for related reading practice
    A beginning reading program should include
    1. Stories that have a significant proportion of decodable words.
    2. A sequence of stories, such that the sound-letter relations the children have learned are cumulatively reviewed in the words of the stories.
    3. Stories that are comprehensible.
    4. Words in the stories that are in the children’s spoken vocabularies.

  3. Talya says:

    Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for AccessibilityBy: David J. Chard and Jean Osborn (1999)AbstractThis article examines the content and instructional plans of phonics and word recognition to be used with children with reading disabilities. Information is provided about the content of effective word- recognition instruction. Guidelines are included based on this information as well as on 4 other aspects of reading instruction (i.e., oral language development, print awareness, reading aloud, and independent wide reading) that are central to any accessible and effective classroom program. These guidelines will assist educators in selecting programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read.The goals of reading instruction are many, but certainly include that children will read with confidence, that they will understand what they read, and that they will find reading a source of knowledge and pleasure. To achieve these goals with all children, an effective classroom program of beginning reading instruction must provide children with a wide variety of experiences that relate to a number of important aspects of reading.Some of these experiences focus on meaning. For example, children take part in oral language activities that concentrate on concept and vocabulary development; children hear good stories and informational texts read aloud; they read and discuss with other children what they read, often under the guidance of their teachers.Other experiences focus on word recognition of printed words as children engage in print awareness, letter recognition, writing, and spelling activities. Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print materials, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional time.Word-recognition InstructionMany publishers – both large and small – have developed programs of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Some of the phonics and word-recognition instruction are integrated in large basal reading programs and others are in supplemental programs narrowly focused to address one aspect of instruction. Many teachers teach phonics and word recognition by using the district’s commercially published basal reading program, typically a program of instruction that includes grade-level materials for teaching reading with a teacher’s guide and student reading materials as well as ancillary materials that support the primary components. These programs often contain phonics and word-recognition activities embedded in a sequence of instruction that includes shared reading from children’s literature, guided reading in predictable stories, and writing activities.These commercially published basal reading programs are particularly important because they are typically adopted by a school or district and become the cornerstone of instruction for most classrooms. Recent reviews of the major commercial programs (Smith et al., in press; Stein, Johnson, & Gutlohn, 1998) have revealed that word- recognition instruction and instruction in oral language skills related to word recognition were inadequately represented. Stein et al. found that few programs included an explicit phonics approach, and student reading selections often did not correspond to the words children were learning during word-recognition instruction making most of the selections inaccessible to the readers.In addition to the basal programs, teachers often supplement their regular instruction with published phonics programs. These programs are commonly used with students identified as having reading disabilities. Many parents seek out such programs to use at home if they are concerned that their children are experiencing difficulty learning to read in school. There are literally hundreds of supplementary programs on the market, and new programs appear regularly. These programs take many forms. Many appear in traditional print form that feature board and card games, flash cards, word lists, story books, and workbooks. Some combine traditional instructional materials with audiotapes, electronic games, videotapes, and computer discs. Still other programs provide essentially all instruction by computer.This article is designed to be used to examine the content and instructional plans of phonics and word-recognition instruction to be used with children with reading disabilities. The purpose of the article, however, is not to explore the many meanings, interpretations, and merits of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Rather, the purpose of the article is to help those who intend to use commercially published programs of instruction to make good choices that will benefit both teachers and students with reading disabilities. Such an examination can provide information about the content of a program’s word-recognition instruction and its suitability for providing access to the general curriculum for students with reading disabilities.The content of phonics and word-recognition instructionAlthough the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only a part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998). The main goal of such instruction is to help children figure out the alphabetic system of written English and become comfortable with that system as they become readers (Lyon, 1998). The authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), written almost a decade ago, nicely described the goal, purpose, and limitations of phonics instruction:The goal of phonics is not that children be able to state the “rules” governing letter-sound relationships. Rather, the purpose is to get across the alphabetic principle, the principle that there are systematic relationships between letters and sounds.Phonics ought to be conceived as a technique for getting children off to a fast start in mapping the relationships between letters and sounds. It follows that phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly lay bare the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. (p. 38)Phonics then is the system of instruction used to teach children the connection between letters and sounds (Snow et al., 1998). We do want to warn the reader, however, that this term is entirely abused and has many different meanings to different people. A generally agreed on definition may not be possible.The alphabetic principleAn important part of helping children with reading disabilities figure out the system underlying the printed word is leading them to understand the alphabetic principle (Adams, 1990; Ehri & McCormick, 1998; Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 199 1). This means, to understand that in written English, words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken English words. Some children seem to figure out the alphabetic principle almost effortlessly, with little or no instruction. However, most children, and children with learning disabilities (LD) in particular, benefit from organized instruction that centers on sounds, letters, and the relations between sounds and letters (Perfetti & Zhang, 1995). They also benefit from word -recognition instruction that offers practice with, for example, word families that share similar letter patterns. Additionally, children with reading disabilities benefit from opportunities to apply what they are learning to the reading and rereading of stories and other texts. Such texts contain a high proportion of words that reflect the letters, sounds, and spelling patterns the children are learning.Elements of phonics and word-recognition instructionTo help children map the relations between letters and sounds, effective phonics and word-recognition strategy instruction should provide them with opportunities to become comfortable with a number of aspects of reading, including alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relations, word-identification strategies, spelling and writing connections, related reading practice, and reading fluency.Each of these elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction is discussed in this section. Each discussion is followed by a set of guidelines for program evaluators to consider as they examine programs. We relied on the following sources for determining what is most important to phonics and word-recognition instruction:• Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children The National Academy of Sciences report• Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (Adams, 1990), several primary research studies, and secondary reviews of research that are noted in the guidelines. At this point, it is important to note that, although many of these guidelines are based on empirical research, others are based on a logical analysis of learning tasks and effective classroom practice.Alphabetic knowledgeChildren must become expert users of the letters they will see and use to write their own words and messages (Lyon, 1998). Children’s knowledge of letters is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read. Children whose knowledge of letters is not well developed when they start school need a lot of sensibly organized practice that will help them learn how to identify, name, and write letters.Guidelines for alphabetic knowledge instructionA beginning reading program should include the following elements:1. A variety of alphabetic knowledge activities in which children learn to identify and name both upper case and lower case letters.2. Games, songs, and other activities that help children learn to name letters quickly.3. Writing activities that encourage children to practice writing the letters they are learning.4. A sensible sequence of letter introduction that can be adjusted to the needs of the children.Phonemic awarenessChildren’s ability to think about individual words as sequences of sounds is important to their understanding of the alphabetic principle (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985; Snow et al., 1998). Toward that understanding, children learn to identify rhyming words and to create their own rhymes. They also learn that sentences are made up of separate words, words are composed of syllables, and words are made up of sounds that can be separated from each other and manipulated in other ways. Finally, they learn that sounds that are separated (or segmented) from words can be put back together again to form words.Some children have a great deal of difficulty learning to separate, or segment, the sounds in spoken words, and to then reconstitute the sounds (i.e., to blend the segmented sounds back together to make a word; O’Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, 1996). However, it is this very aspect of phonemic awareness that enables children to apply their knowledge of sound-letter relations to the sounding out of printed words (Smith, Simmons, & Karneenui, 1998).It is important to make some clear distinctions: Phonemes are the separable individual sounds in words. They are the smallest units of sound. The onset is the initial single phoneme or initial consonant cluster in a word and the rime is the remaining set of phonemes in a word. Rimes are larger than phonemes, but smaller than syllables.For example, take bat and bright, both one-syllable words:in bat, the onset is /b/ and the rime is /at/;in bright, the onset is /br/ and the rime is /ight/.In contrast:bat contains three phonemes – /b/ /a/ /t/;bright contains four phonemes – /b/ /r/ /i/ /t/.Most sequencing of phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming words and then moves to helping children learn how to divide (or segment) sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onset and rime, and finally, one-syllable words into phonemes.Not all programs include the same content. For example, some programs introduce onsets and rimes before requiring students to identify and manipulate each of the separable sounds of one- syllable words. Some programs do not include onset and rime activities. In many programs, segmentation is introduced by having children identify and segment the initial sound of a one- syllable word. After practicing with initial sounds, the children then learn to identify and segment final sounds, and finally work with medial sounds. Still other programs have children learn to segment and then blend each individual sound of spoken one-syllable words.Phonemic awareness activities usually involve oral tasks in the absence of print. In some programs, however, the instruction directs the children to use auditory (clapping) and visual cues (Elkonin boxes, blocks) to help them understand that the sounds in words can be separate entities. At the more advanced levels of instruction (segmenting and blending), the relations of sounds to written letters often become part of the instructional sequence, so that the children hear and see the relations between sounds and letters.Guidelines for phonemic awareness instructionA beginning reading program should include the following elements:1. Activities that follow a sequence of instruction that progresses from easier to more difficult tasks and from larger to smaller units, for example:o Rhyming words.o Dividing sentences into words.o Dividing words into syllables.o Segmenting and blending onsets and rimes.o Identifying beginning, medial, and ending sounds in spoken words.o Segmenting and blending individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.2. Auditory (e.g., clapping), visual (e.g., tiles, chips), or both cues to help children identify separate sounds in words.3. Activities to teach the relationship of letters to sounds in more advanced tasks (segmenting and blending phonemes).4. For children who are having difficulty, a sequence of instruction that:1. Starts with continuous sounds (for example, m, s, i, f) that are easier to hear and blend.2. Advises teachers to stretch out and connect (or “sing”) the sounds (e.g., “ssssaaaammm,” rather than separating them, for example, “S … a … m”).Sound-letter relationsChildren’s early reading development is dependent on their acquisition of the sound-letter relations that underlie written English. Many children with reading disabilities benefit from explicit and systematic teaching of these sound-letter relations; this is typically described as or labeled phonics. Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998).Phonics instruction is usually categorized as explicit or implicit. In explicit phonics instruction, the sounds associated with the letters are identified in isolation and then blended together to form words. The teacher directly tells students the sound represented by an individual letter. For example, “The letter l makes the sound /llll/.” When children have learned several correspondences, including one or two vowels, they can read words by blending sounds of the letters together. For example, students who have learned the sound-letter correspondences /I / /a/ /m/ and /p/ can utilize a blending strategy to read “lamp.”In contrast, implicit phonics instruction includes helping students identify the sounds associated with individual letters in the context of whole words, rather than in isolation. Typically, students are asked to infer the sound of a letter from a word or set of words that contain that letter. For example, in teaching the sound for m, the teacher is directed to:Write man on the board and underline the letter m.Have the students say man and listen for the beginning sound. Elicit from the students that the letter m makes the sound /m/.In implicit phonics, children are often encouraged to utilize context and picture cues to identify any unfamiliar words they encounter in text selections. Most supplementary programs employ explicit instruction.Rate and sequence of introductionThere is no set rule about how quickly or how slowly to introduce sound-letter relations. Obviously, it is important to gauge the rate of introduction by the performance of the group of children with whom the program is being used. Furthermore, there is no agreed on order in which to introduce sound-letter relations. The advice most often given is to avoid programs that teach all possible sound-letter relations before providing real reading practice. Rather, the sound-letter relations should be selected so that the children can read words as soon as possible. That is, the initial sound-letter relations presented in a program should have high utility. For example, m, a, t, and th are of high utility, whereas gh as in through, ey as in they, and a as in want are of less high utility. It should be noted that programs that present all of the consonants before any of the vowels are taught do not allow children to read words, even after they have learned several sound-letter relations.An effective program may start with two or more single consonants and one or two short vowels. The children can read words that are spelled with these letters. Then, more single consonants and more short vowels are added, along with perhaps a long vowel. As each new sound-letter relation is introduced, the children read words spelled with those letters. For example, if the relationships for a, f, n, s, and t, are presented first, the children can work with the words fan, an, at, ant, fast, and fat among others. Then if the relations for m, th, c, and i are added, the children can work with such words as if, cat, sat, man, and that. The children can create sentences such as, “A fast ant sat on a fat cat.”Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., br, tr) may be added; digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ch) are often introduced to permit children to read words such as this, she, and chair. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty.The number of possible variations is enormous. The point is that the order of introduction should be logical and consistent with the rate at which the children can learn. Furthermore, the sound-letter relations chosen should permit the children to work with words almost immediately.Guidelines for examining sound-letter relations instruction• Plan of instruction. A beginning reading program should include:1. Common sound-letter relations taught directly and explicitly.2. Advanced phonemic awareness activities combined with the presentation of sound-letter relations.3. Opportunities for children to practice sound-letter relations in every lesson.4. Practice opportunities that include new sound-letter relations as well as cumulative review of previously taught relations.5. Opportunities early and often for children to apply their expanding knowledge of sound-letter relations to the reading of regularly spelled words that are familiar in meaning.6. A suggestion that the teacher or students point to the letters as they sound out the words.• Rate of instruction. A beginning reading program should:1. Recognize that children learn sound-letter relations at different rates.2. Introduce sound-letter relations at a reasonable pace (e.g., in a range of two to four per week, depending on student performance).3. Encourage teachers to informally assess children’s application of sound-letter relations and to use this information to make instructional decisions.• Sequence of instruction. A beginning reading program should:1. Introduce consonants and vowels in a sequence that permits the children to read words.2. Choose consonants and vowels that can be combined to make words for the children to read.3. Teach a number of high-utility sound-letter relations first and add lower utility relations later.4. Introduce consonant blends or clusters in separate lessons.5. Provide blending instruction with words that contain the sound-letter relations that the children are learning.Word-recognition strategiesEffective word-recognition strategies permit children to quickly and automatically translate the letters or spelling patterns of written words into speech sounds so that they can identify words and gain rapid access to their meanings (Vandervelden & Siegel, 1997). Children must learn to identify words quickly and effortlessly so that they can focus on the meaning of what they are reading (Stanovich, 1986). As children learn to read more and more complex stories, effective word-identification strategies will permit them to figure out the pronunciations of words they have never seen before in print. Students’ semantic and syntactic knowledge, in turn, can help to confirm the accuracy of their attempts at word identification.It is important that children learn to use their sound and spelling knowledge as a primary strategy for word recognition (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997; Beck, 1998). Children should also have opportunities to work with larger units (e.g., word families, spelling patterns, and onsets and rimes). More advanced word- identification strategies focus on structural analysis – the identification of root words, prefixes, and suffixes – and on how to read multisyllabic words.Children need to recognize some common words before they have the sound-letter knowledge to sound them out (e.g., the, this). Additionally, some words are “irregular,” meaning they are difficult to read using a sounding out strategy. The program should introduce some irregular and other sight words in a reasonable sequence. These words should be continuously reviewed in the lessons and in the written materials the children read. Presenting some words as sight words should not overshadow the importance of teaching children to learn how to use word-identification strategies to figure out words.Guidelines for addressing word-identification strategiesA beginning reading program should include1. Opportunities to practice word recognition, including words with newly introduced sound-letter relations or word parts mixed with previously learned words.2. Opportunities for children to learn to use word order (syntax) and word meaning (semantics) to confirm the words identified through word-recognition strategies (Adams, 1998).3. A limited set of sight words (some of which are regularly spelled) in the beginning stages of reading instruction.4. Phonetically irregular words in a reasonable order and review the words cumulatively.5. Phonetically irregular words in the written materials the students read.6. Opportunities for children not only to decode words but also to access the words’ meanings.7. Strategies for identifying words with more than one syllable.Spelling and writingChildren with reading disabilities must have opportunities to write and relate their writing to spelling and reading. Initially, children’s phonetic approximations of words or invented spellings should be encouraged to stimulate writing (Ehri, 1998; Snow et al., 1998). As children learn to read and write words, they become aware of how these words are spelled. Increasing children’s awareness of spelling patterns hastens their progress in both reading and writing. In the first grade, spelling instruction can be coordinated with the program of reading instruction. As children progress, well-organized, systematic lessons in spelling are critical.Guidelines for effective spelling and writing activitiesA beginning reading program should include1. Spelling activities that are related to the words that children are reading and writing.2. Guides to move children from their own temporary spellings to more standard spellings.3. Spelling instruction with explicit instruction in sound-letter relations and word-identification strategies.4. Lessons that help children attend to spelling patterns.5. Purpose-filled writing activities that permit children to respond to what is read to them and to what they read, express themselves creatively, and communicate with others.Related reading practiceMost children benefit from opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in stories. The term decodable text is used to describe stories and other materials that use the sound-letter relations the children are learning as well as a limited number of high-frequency sight words. Decodable text may also contain a limited number of “special words” that make the text more interesting. Decodable stories can provide children with reading disabilities with the opportunity to practice what they are learning about letters and sounds. For example, if the children know these sound-letter relations – m /m/, s /s/, t /t/, p /p/, e /e/, and a /a/ and the special words the, elephant, said, no, and thank you – they can read a story such as:• Pat and the Elephant• Pat met the elephant.• The elephant met Pat.• Pat sat.• The elephant sat.• The elephant sat on the mats.• The elephant sat and sat.• Pat sat and sat.• Pat said, “Elephant, pat the pets.”• The pets said, “No, thank you, Elephant.”In addition to decodable books, many predictable and patterned books provide children with engaging language and print experiences. These books may be most beneficial when children are developing print awareness. Typically these books are not based on the sound-letter relations, spelling patterns, and sight words the children are learning. For example:• Two Cats Play• Two cats play on the grass.• Two cats play with yarn.• Two cats play with a ball.• Two cats play all day.• Two cats too tired to play.Many children benefit from practice with stories that contain a high proportion of decodable or familiar words. For some children, this sort of systematic approach is critical.Stories should “fit” the child’s reading level. As children with reading disabilities become more proficient, a wider range of books become readable to them. The decodability or predictability of the books is no longer a constraint. There is little research that directly address the level of decodability of texts that best facilitates children’s reading fluency. Different sources have recommended different levels of decodability. For example, Anderson et al. (1985) and Juel (1994) both recommended approximately 90% of the words in a story should be decodable. As children learn to read words, sentences, and stories fluently, accurately, and automatically, they no longer have to struggle to identify words and are free to pay closer attention to word meanings.Guidelines for decodable text for related reading practiceA beginning reading program should include1. Stories that have a significant proportion of decodable words.2. A sequence of stories, such that the sound-letter relations the children have learned are cumulatively reviewed in the words of the stories.3. Stories that are comprehensible.4. Words in the stories that are in the children’s spoken vocabularies.
    +1

  4. Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for AccessibilityBy: David J. Chard and Jean Osborn (1999)AbstractThis article examines the content and instructional plans of phonics and word recognition to be used with children with reading disabilities. Information is provided about the content of effective word- recognition instruction. Guidelines are included based on this information as well as on 4 other aspects of reading instruction (i.e., oral language development, print awareness, reading aloud, and independent wide reading) that are central to any accessible and effective classroom program. These guidelines will assist educators in selecting programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read.The goals of reading instruction are many, but certainly include that children will read with confidence, that they will understand what they read, and that they will find reading a source of knowledge and pleasure. To achieve these goals with all children, an effective classroom program of beginning reading instruction must provide children with a wide variety of experiences that relate to a number of important aspects of reading.Some of these experiences focus on meaning. For example, children take part in oral language activities that concentrate on concept and vocabulary development; children hear good stories and informational texts read aloud; they read and discuss with other children what they read, often under the guidance of their teachers.Other experiences focus on word recognition of printed words as children engage in print awareness, letter recognition, writing, and spelling activities. Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print materials, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional time.Word-recognition InstructionMany publishers – both large and small – have developed programs of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Some of the phonics and word-recognition instruction are integrated in large basal reading programs and others are in supplemental programs narrowly focused to address one aspect of instruction. Many teachers teach phonics and word recognition by using the district’s commercially published basal reading program, typically a program of instruction that includes grade-level materials for teaching reading with a teacher’s guide and student reading materials as well as ancillary materials that support the primary components. These programs often contain phonics and word-recognition activities embedded in a sequence of instruction that includes shared reading from children’s literature, guided reading in predictable stories, and writing activities.These commercially published basal reading programs are particularly important because they are typically adopted by a school or district and become the cornerstone of instruction for most classrooms. Recent reviews of the major commercial programs (Smith et al., in press; Stein, Johnson, & Gutlohn, 1998) have revealed that word- recognition instruction and instruction in oral language skills related to word recognition were inadequately represented. Stein et al. found that few programs included an explicit phonics approach, and student reading selections often did not correspond to the words children were learning during word-recognition instruction making most of the selections inaccessible to the readers.In addition to the basal programs, teachers often supplement their regular instruction with published phonics programs. These programs are commonly used with students identified as having reading disabilities. Many parents seek out such programs to use at home if they are concerned that their children are experiencing difficulty learning to read in school. There are literally hundreds of supplementary programs on the market, and new programs appear regularly. These programs take many forms. Many appear in traditional print form that feature board and card games, flash cards, word lists, story books, and workbooks. Some combine traditional instructional materials with audiotapes, electronic games, videotapes, and computer discs. Still other programs provide essentially all instruction by computer.This article is designed to be used to examine the content and instructional plans of phonics and word-recognition instruction to be used with children with reading disabilities. The purpose of the article, however, is not to explore the many meanings, interpretations, and merits of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Rather, the purpose of the article is to help those who intend to use commercially published programs of instruction to make good choices that will benefit both teachers and students with reading disabilities. Such an examination can provide information about the content of a program’s word-recognition instruction and its suitability for providing access to the general curriculum for students with reading disabilities.The content of phonics and word-recognition instructionAlthough the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only a part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998). The main goal of such instruction is to help children figure out the alphabetic system of written English and become comfortable with that system as they become readers (Lyon, 1998). The authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), written almost a decade ago, nicely described the goal, purpose, and limitations of phonics instruction:The goal of phonics is not that children be able to state the “rules” governing letter-sound relationships. Rather, the purpose is to get across the alphabetic principle, the principle that there are systematic relationships between letters and sounds.Phonics ought to be conceived as a technique for getting children off to a fast start in mapping the relationships between letters and sounds. It follows that phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly lay bare the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. (p. 38)Phonics then is the system of instruction used to teach children the connection between letters and sounds (Snow et al., 1998). We do want to warn the reader, however, that this term is entirely abused and has many different meanings to different people. A generally agreed on definition may not be possible.The alphabetic principleAn important part of helping children with reading disabilities figure out the system underlying the printed word is leading them to understand the alphabetic principle (Adams, 1990; Ehri & McCormick, 1998; Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 199 1). This means, to understand that in written English, words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken English words. Some children seem to figure out the alphabetic principle almost effortlessly, with little or no instruction. However, most children, and children with learning disabilities (LD) in particular, benefit from organized instruction that centers on sounds, letters, and the relations between sounds and letters (Perfetti & Zhang, 1995). They also benefit from word -recognition instruction that offers practice with, for example, word families that share similar letter patterns. Additionally, children with reading disabilities benefit from opportunities to apply what they are learning to the reading and rereading of stories and other texts. Such texts contain a high proportion of words that reflect the letters, sounds, and spelling patterns the children are learning.Elements of phonics and word-recognition instructionTo help children map the relations between letters and sounds, effective phonics and word-recognition strategy instruction should provide them with opportunities to become comfortable with a number of aspects of reading, including alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relations, word-identification strategies, spelling and writing connections, related reading practice, and reading fluency.Each of these elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction is discussed in this section. Each discussion is followed by a set of guidelines for program evaluators to consider as they examine programs. We relied on the following sources for determining what is most important to phonics and word-recognition instruction:• Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children The National Academy of Sciences report• Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (Adams, 1990), several primary research studies, and secondary reviews of research that are noted in the guidelines. At this point, it is important to note that, although many of these guidelines are based on empirical research, others are based on a logical analysis of learning tasks and effective classroom practice.Alphabetic knowledgeChildren must become expert users of the letters they will see and use to write their own words and messages (Lyon, 1998). Children’s knowledge of letters is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read. Children whose knowledge of letters is not well developed when they start school need a lot of sensibly organized practice that will help them learn how to identify, name, and write letters.Guidelines for alphabetic knowledge instructionA beginning reading program should include the following elements:1. A variety of alphabetic knowledge activities in which children learn to identify and name both upper case and lower case letters.2. Games, songs, and other activities that help children learn to name letters quickly.3. Writing activities that encourage children to practice writing the letters they are learning.4. A sensible sequence of letter introduction that can be adjusted to the needs of the children.Phonemic awarenessChildren’s ability to think about individual words as sequences of sounds is important to their understanding of the alphabetic principle (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985; Snow et al., 1998). Toward that understanding, children learn to identify rhyming words and to create their own rhymes. They also learn that sentences are made up of separate words, words are composed of syllables, and words are made up of sounds that can be separated from each other and manipulated in other ways. Finally, they learn that sounds that are separated (or segmented) from words can be put back together again to form words.Some children have a great deal of difficulty learning to separate, or segment, the sounds in spoken words, and to then reconstitute the sounds (i.e., to blend the segmented sounds back together to make a word; O’Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, 1996). However, it is this very aspect of phonemic awareness that enables children to apply their knowledge of sound-letter relations to the sounding out of printed words (Smith, Simmons, & Karneenui, 1998).It is important to make some clear distinctions: Phonemes are the separable individual sounds in words. They are the smallest units of sound. The onset is the initial single phoneme or initial consonant cluster in a word and the rime is the remaining set of phonemes in a word. Rimes are larger than phonemes, but smaller than syllables.For example, take bat and bright, both one-syllable words:in bat, the onset is /b/ and the rime is /at/;in bright, the onset is /br/ and the rime is /ight/.In contrast:bat contains three phonemes – /b/ /a/ /t/;bright contains four phonemes – /b/ /r/ /i/ /t/.Most sequencing of phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming words and then moves to helping children learn how to divide (or segment) sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onset and rime, and finally, one-syllable words into phonemes.Not all programs include the same content. For example, some programs introduce onsets and rimes before requiring students to identify and manipulate each of the separable sounds of one- syllable words. Some programs do not include onset and rime activities. In many programs, segmentation is introduced by having children identify and segment the initial sound of a one- syllable word. After practicing with initial sounds, the children then learn to identify and segment final sounds, and finally work with medial sounds. Still other programs have children learn to segment and then blend each individual sound of spoken one-syllable words.Phonemic awareness activities usually involve oral tasks in the absence of print. In some programs, however, the instruction directs the children to use auditory (clapping) and visual cues (Elkonin boxes, blocks) to help them understand that the sounds in words can be separate entities. At the more advanced levels of instruction (segmenting and blending), the relations of sounds to written letters often become part of the instructional sequence, so that the children hear and see the relations between sounds and letters.Guidelines for phonemic awareness instructionA beginning reading program should include the following elements:1. Activities that follow a sequence of instruction that progresses from easier to more difficult tasks and from larger to smaller units, for example:o Rhyming words.o Dividing sentences into words.o Dividing words into syllables.o Segmenting and blending onsets and rimes.o Identifying beginning, medial, and ending sounds in spoken words.o Segmenting and blending individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.2. Auditory (e.g., clapping), visual (e.g., tiles, chips), or both cues to help children identify separate sounds in words.3. Activities to teach the relationship of letters to sounds in more advanced tasks (segmenting and blending phonemes).4. For children who are having difficulty, a sequence of instruction that:1. Starts with continuous sounds (for example, m, s, i, f) that are easier to hear and blend.2. Advises teachers to stretch out and connect (or “sing”) the sounds (e.g., “ssssaaaammm,” rather than separating them, for example, “S … a … m”).Sound-letter relationsChildren’s early reading development is dependent on their acquisition of the sound-letter relations that underlie written English. Many children with reading disabilities benefit from explicit and systematic teaching of these sound-letter relations; this is typically described as or labeled phonics. Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998).Phonics instruction is usually categorized as explicit or implicit. In explicit phonics instruction, the sounds associated with the letters are identified in isolation and then blended together to form words. The teacher directly tells students the sound represented by an individual letter. For example, “The letter l makes the sound /llll/.” When children have learned several correspondences, including one or two vowels, they can read words by blending sounds of the letters together. For example, students who have learned the sound-letter correspondences /I / /a/ /m/ and /p/ can utilize a blending strategy to read “lamp.”In contrast, implicit phonics instruction includes helping students identify the sounds associated with individual letters in the context of whole words, rather than in isolation. Typically, students are asked to infer the sound of a letter from a word or set of words that contain that letter. For example, in teaching the sound for m, the teacher is directed to:Write man on the board and underline the letter m.Have the students say man and listen for the beginning sound. Elicit from the students that the letter m makes the sound /m/.In implicit phonics, children are often encouraged to utilize context and picture cues to identify any unfamiliar words they encounter in text selections. Most supplementary programs employ explicit instruction.Rate and sequence of introductionThere is no set rule about how quickly or how slowly to introduce sound-letter relations. Obviously, it is important to gauge the rate of introduction by the performance of the group of children with whom the program is being used. Furthermore, there is no agreed on order in which to introduce sound-letter relations. The advice most often given is to avoid programs that teach all possible sound-letter relations before providing real reading practice. Rather, the sound-letter relations should be selected so that the children can read words as soon as possible. That is, the initial sound-letter relations presented in a program should have high utility. For example, m, a, t, and th are of high utility, whereas gh as in through, ey as in they, and a as in want are of less high utility. It should be noted that programs that present all of the consonants before any of the vowels are taught do not allow children to read words, even after they have learned several sound-letter relations.An effective program may start with two or more single consonants and one or two short vowels. The children can read words that are spelled with these letters. Then, more single consonants and more short vowels are added, along with perhaps a long vowel. As each new sound-letter relation is introduced, the children read words spelled with those letters. For example, if the relationships for a, f, n, s, and t, are presented first, the children can work with the words fan, an, at, ant, fast, and fat among others. Then if the relations for m, th, c, and i are added, the children can work with such words as if, cat, sat, man, and that. The children can create sentences such as, “A fast ant sat on a fat cat.”Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., br, tr) may be added; digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ch) are often introduced to permit children to read words such as this, she, and chair. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty.The number of possible variations is enormous. The point is that the order of introduction should be logical and consistent with the rate at which the children can learn. Furthermore, the sound-letter relations chosen should permit the children to work with words almost immediately.Guidelines for examining sound-letter relations instruction• Plan of instruction. A beginning reading program should include:1. Common sound-letter relations taught directly and explicitly.2. Advanced phonemic awareness activities combined with the presentation of sound-letter relations.3. Opportunities for children to practice sound-letter relations in every lesson.4. Practice opportunities that include new sound-letter relations as well as cumulative review of previously taught relations.5. Opportunities early and often for children to apply their expanding knowledge of sound-letter relations to the reading of regularly spelled words that are familiar in meaning.6. A suggestion that the teacher or students point to the letters as they sound out the words.• Rate of instruction. A beginning reading program should:1. Recognize that children learn sound-letter relations at different rates.2. Introduce sound-letter relations at a reasonable pace (e.g., in a range of two to four per week, depending on student performance).3. Encourage teachers to informally assess children’s application of sound-letter relations and to use this information to make instructional decisions.• Sequence of instruction. A beginning reading program should:1. Introduce consonants and vowels in a sequence that permits the children to read words.2. Choose consonants and vowels that can be combined to make words for the children to read.3. Teach a number of high-utility sound-letter relations first and add lower utility relations later.4. Introduce consonant blends or clusters in separate lessons.5. Provide blending instruction with words that contain the sound-letter relations that the children are learning.Word-recognition strategiesEffective word-recognition strategies permit children to quickly and automatically translate the letters or spelling patterns of written words into speech sounds so that they can identify words and gain rapid access to their meanings (Vandervelden & Siegel, 1997). Children must learn to identify words quickly and effortlessly so that they can focus on the meaning of what they are reading (Stanovich, 1986). As children learn to read more and more complex stories, effective word-identification strategies will permit them to figure out the pronunciations of words they have never seen before in print. Students’ semantic and syntactic knowledge, in turn, can help to confirm the accuracy of their attempts at word identification.It is important that children learn to use their sound and spelling knowledge as a primary strategy for word recognition (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997; Beck, 1998). Children should also have opportunities to work with larger units (e.g., word families, spelling patterns, and onsets and rimes). More advanced word- identification strategies focus on structural analysis – the identification of root words, prefixes, and suffixes – and on how to read multisyllabic words.Children need to recognize some common words before they have the sound-letter knowledge to sound them out (e.g., the, this). Additionally, some words are “irregular,” meaning they are difficult to read using a sounding out strategy. The program should introduce some irregular and other sight words in a reasonable sequence. These words should be continuously reviewed in the lessons and in the written materials the children read. Presenting some words as sight words should not overshadow the importance of teaching children to learn how to use word-identification strategies to figure out words.Guidelines for addressing word-identification strategiesA beginning reading program should include1. Opportunities to practice word recognition, including words with newly introduced sound-letter relations or word parts mixed with previously learned words.2. Opportunities for children to learn to use word order (syntax) and word meaning (semantics) to confirm the words identified through word-recognition strategies (Adams, 1998).3. A limited set of sight words (some of which are regularly spelled) in the beginning stages of reading instruction.4. Phonetically irregular words in a reasonable order and review the words cumulatively.5. Phonetically irregular words in the written materials the students read.6. Opportunities for children not only to decode words but also to access the words’ meanings.7. Strategies for identifying words with more than one syllable.Spelling and writingChildren with reading disabilities must have opportunities to write and relate their writing to spelling and reading. Initially, children’s phonetic approximations of words or invented spellings should be encouraged to stimulate writing (Ehri, 1998; Snow et al., 1998). As children learn to read and write words, they become aware of how these words are spelled. Increasing children’s awareness of spelling patterns hastens their progress in both reading and writing. In the first grade, spelling instruction can be coordinated with the program of reading instruction. As children progress, well-organized, systematic lessons in spelling are critical.Guidelines for effective spelling and writing activitiesA beginning reading program should include1. Spelling activities that are related to the words that children are reading and writing.2. Guides to move children from their own temporary spellings to more standard spellings.3. Spelling instruction with explicit instruction in sound-letter relations and word-identification strategies.4. Lessons that help children attend to spelling patterns.5. Purpose-filled writing activities that permit children to respond to what is read to them and to what they read, express themselves creatively, and communicate with others.Related reading practiceMost children benefit from opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in stories. The term decodable text is used to describe stories and other materials that use the sound-letter relations the children are learning as well as a limited number of high-frequency sight words. Decodable text may also contain a limited number of “special words” that make the text more interesting. Decodable stories can provide children with reading disabilities with the opportunity to practice what they are learning about letters and sounds. For example, if the children know these sound-letter relations – m /m/, s /s/, t /t/, p /p/, e /e/, and a /a/ and the special words the, elephant, said, no, and thank you – they can read a story such as:• Pat and the Elephant• Pat met the elephant.• The elephant met Pat.• Pat sat.• The elephant sat.• The elephant sat on the mats.• The elephant sat and sat.• Pat sat and sat.• Pat said, “Elephant, pat the pets.”• The pets said, “No, thank you, Elephant.”In addition to decodable books, many predictable and patterned books provide children with engaging language and print experiences. These books may be most beneficial when children are developing print awareness. Typically these books are not based on the sound-letter relations, spelling patterns, and sight words the children are learning. For example:• Two Cats Play• Two cats play on the grass.• Two cats play with yarn.• Two cats play with a ball.• Two cats play all day.• Two cats too tired to play.Many children benefit from practice with stories that contain a high proportion of decodable or familiar words. For some children, this sort of systematic approach is critical.Stories should “fit” the child’s reading level. As children with reading disabilities become more proficient, a wider range of books become readable to them. The decodability or predictability of the books is no longer a constraint. There is little research that directly address the level of decodability of texts that best facilitates children’s reading fluency. Different sources have recommended different levels of decodability. For example, Anderson et al. (1985) and Juel (1994) both recommended approximately 90% of the words in a story should be decodable. As children learn to read words, sentences, and stories fluently, accurately, and automatically, they no longer have to struggle to identify words and are free to pay closer attention to word meanings.Guidelines for decodable text for related reading practiceA beginning reading program should include1. Stories that have a significant proportion of decodable words.2. A sequence of stories, such that the sound-letter relations the children have learned are cumulatively reviewed in the words of the stories.3. Stories that are comprehensible.4. Words in the stories that are in the children’s spoken vocabularies.+1
    +1

  5. very nice post, I certainly love this website, keep up the good work.

  6. I guess my searching was a success because I came across your absorbing blog while browsing for pages discussing American life. I am affiliated with a small manufacturingcompany in Spring, Texas that makes political gifts. Come visit my site sometime. Keep up the good work with your blog.

  7. Clint Huyett says:

    I very glad to find this internet site on bing, just what I was searching for : D besides saved to my bookmarks .

  8. I believe this site has got very wonderful indited content material articles .

  9. this internet site is my inhalation , real excellent pattern and perfect written content .

  10. Olin Geurts says:

    Did you see the free iPhone 4’s verizon is giving away to help test their new iPhone service? http://bit.ly/fTZcra

  11. Have you actually considered adding a lot more videos to your weblog posts to maintain the readers more entertained? I mean I just study through the whole article of yours and it was quite great but since I’m more of the visual learner,I discovered that to be more useful nicely let me know how it turns out! I love what you men are usually up too. Such clever function and reporting! Maintain up the excellent works men I’ve added you guys to my blogroll. This is an excellent article many thanks for sharing this informative information.. I’ll visit your blog frequently for some latest post.

  12. Hmm that was weird, my comment got eaten. Anyway I desired to say that it’s nice to know that someone else also mentioned this as I had trouble finding the same info elsewhere. This was the first location that told me the answer. Many thanks.

  13. poker says:

    Thanks a lot for providing individuals with an extremely terrific opportunity to check tips from this website. It really is very fantastic and packed with a great time for me and my office acquaintances to visit your blog nearly thrice every week to learn the fresh issues you have. And lastly, I am always fulfilled with all the attractive secrets you give. Some 4 areas on this page are in truth the finest we have ever had.

  14. My coder is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using WordPress on various websites for about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform. I have heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    • ischoolslasconia says:

      just copy the html and post it to your desired blog site. remember not all html are compatible. just check it thoroughly. hear from soom.

  15. Make sure you refer friends who want assist.

  16. Shizue Tsuji says:

    Your blog can get more visitors! Getting more visitors to your website is the only way that you will ever be able to make more money. Search engines love content. Content is automatically added to your blog every time that someone leaves a comment. Did you know that there are some great ways to get free traffic to your blog? There are some great strategies out there for accomplishing this. I managed to stumble across a system that includes everything that you need to know about getting free traffic to your blog. This package includes tricks to use with classifieds, blogs, forums, social sites, article marketing, news networks, text links, video marketing and much more. I really don’t think that any web marketer should be without these tips and tricks. Even if you consider yourself to be an expert on getting free traffic, you will find some great information, tricks and tips in these strategies. If you really want to explode your website traffic then check this out. http://tinyurl.com/tmdeals

  17. Rich says:

    Webmaster, I am the admin at SEOPlugins.org. We profile SEO Plugins for WordPress blogs for on-site and off-site SEO. I’d like to invite you to check out our recent profile for a pretty amazing plugin which can double or triple traffic for a Worpdress blog. You can delete this comment, I didn’t want to comment on your blog, just wanted to drop you a personal message. Thanks, Rich

  18. Chris says:

    Hi, I am Chris from FootballAffiliates.com. With football season here we are looking for website owners who want to significantly increase what their site is earning. We offer a 50% commission (which is $23-25 per sale). Our product converts like crazy and really sells itself. Millions of people want to watch football online and our product fills their need. Most of our affiliates just place one of our banners on their site and they make anywhere from $25-$500 per day. Even if your website is not about football we’ve had people simply write one article and place a text link to our product and they earn hundreds per month. If you like more information please check out our high level description at FootballAffiliates.com or you can view our affiliate platform. If you have any questions I welcome them, please send me an email and we can discuss anything you would like to know. Thanks for your time. Chris

  19. Glad they did the PAVE shows! Caught em in Philly and it was fing rightous baby!! Now onward and upward. Lets hear it all you Malkmusteers!!!! Hip, Hip

  20. Good article and right to the point. I don’t know if this is really the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to employ some professional writers? Thx 🙂

  21. Hi there, I found your site by the use of Google whilst looking for a similar subject, your website got here up, it looks good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  22. In my opinion you are not right. I am assured. I can defend the position. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

  23. Thank you for this blog. Thats all I can say. You most absolutely have produced this blog into some thing thats eye opening and critical. You clearly know so considerably about the subject, youve covered so numerous bases. Wonderful stuff from this part of the net. Again, thank you for this blog.

  24. Heya {i’m|i am} for the first time here. I {came across|found} this board and I find It {truly|really} useful & it helped me out {a lot|much}. I hope to give something back and {help|aid} others like you {helped|aided} me….

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem. You’re wonderful! Thanks!…

  25. heyas :-). how are you all?. well i love to write and i rele want to get into creative writing and but i have a hard time coming up with ideas on what to write about and was wondering if you knew how i could get over this “writer’s block”?. . thanks so much!!.

  26. {Pretty|Attractive} section of content. I just stumbled upon your {blog|weblog|website|web site|site} and in accession capital to assert that I {acquire|get} {in fact|actually} enjoyed account your blog posts. {Any way|Anyway} {I’ll|I will} be subscr…

    My brother recommended I might like this web site. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!…

  27. Luis Lucus says:

    I’m envious. I are unable to get this a lot of men and women to remark on my weblog. What is your solution? Possibly some beneficial Guidelines would assist me. Be sure to check out site at: http://www.shinjukueikawa.com

  28. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be really something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  29. A person necessarily assist to make critically posts I might state. This is the first time I frequented your website page and up to now? I surprised with the research you made to create this actual put up incredible. Magnificent job!

  30. Aw, this was a really good post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to produce a great article… but what can I say… I procrastinate a whole lot and never seem to get nearly anything

  31. lawyers says:

    Trackback PR4 domain…

    Today, with the fast lifestyle that everyone leads, credit cards have a huge demand in the economy….

  32. Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just too wonderful. I really like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it smart. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is actually a wonderful site.

  33. You are my aspiration , I have few blogs and very sporadically run out from to brand.

  34. I’ve been surfing online more than 3 hours lately, but I never discovered any interesting article like yours. It’s lovely worth sufficient for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made just right content material as you probably did, the internet can be much more helpful than ever before. Let me tweet your post to my followers, gj and thanks.

  35. You made some first rate points there. I seemed on the web for the difficulty and located most individuals will go together with together with your website.

  36. Spot on with this write-up, I actually think this web site wants way more consideration. I’ll in all probability be once more to learn far more, thanks for that info.

  37. HCG Meals says:

    I would like to take the opportunity of thanking you for the professional instruction I have always enjoyed checking out your site. I am looking forward to the commencement of my college research and the complete preparation would never have been complete without coming to your web site. If I can be of any assistance to others, I’d be delighted to help via what I have learned from here.

  38. F*ckin? tremendous issues here. I?m very glad to peer your post. Thanks so much and i’m having a look forward to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

  39. Seattle HARP says:

    Wohh exactly what I was searching for, appreciate it for posting.

  40. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or advice. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read more things about it!

  41. I simply wanted to thank you yet again for your amazing blog you have developed here. It really is full of ideas for those who are actually interested in this particular subject, specifically this very post. You really are all so sweet as well as thoughtful of others plus reading your website posts is a good delight with me. And exactly what a generous gift! Dan and I really have enjoyment making use of your points in what we need to do in the near future. Our list is a mile long which means that your tips will be put to fine use.

  42. You completed some good points there. I did a search on the theme and found the majority of folks will have the same opinion with your blog.

  43. ihop says:

    Only wanna remark on few general things, The website design is perfect, the written content is really wonderful :D.

  44. fkawau says:

    This is the proper About Developmental Reading diary for anyone who wants to seek out out almost this theme. You request so more its most exhausting to argue with you (not that I real would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new twisting on a matter thats been transcribed near for age. Discriminating clog, but outstanding!

  45. gjawua says:

    About Developmental Reading I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem. You are incredible! Thanks! your article about About Developmental ReadingBest Regards Nick

  46. cialis says:

    Greetings I am so grateful I found your site, I really found you by mistake, while I was looking on Digg for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a incredible post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but I have saved it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do keep up the great work.

  47. viagra says:

    Nice post. I learn something more challenging on different blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. I’d prefer to use some with the content on my blog whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

  48. I comment each time I appreciate a post on a website or if I have something to contribute to the discussion. Usually it’s caused by the passion communicated in the post I looked at. And on this post About Developmental Reading. I was actually excited enough to drop a thought 😛 I do have a couple of questions for you if it’s allright. Is it simply me or do some of these comments look as if they are left by brain dead people? 😛 And, if you are posting at other places, I would like to follow you. Would you list all of your communal sites like your Facebook page, twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

  49. I am continually searching online for articles that can assist me. Thank you!

  50. viagra says:

    You should take part in a contest for one of the best blogs on the web. I will recommend this site!

  51. ihop coupons says:

    This web site is my inspiration, real wonderful layout and Perfect subject matter.

  52. I rarely post but I really liked this website and just had to bookmark it so I can check back soon.

  53. Loving the info on this site, you have done outstanding job on the articles.

  54. arco says:

    I’ve been browsing on-line more than three hours nowadays, yet I by no means discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours. It’s beautiful worth enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made just right content material as you did, the internet will likely be much more useful than ever before. I appreciate the info. do you will have a fb fan page?

  55. My Homepage says:

    I’d always want to be update on new blog posts on this web site , bookmarked ! . 852850

  56. Be gentle to all and stern with yourself….

    I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one these days….

  57. I like your writing style truly enjoying this website.

  58. I got what you intend,bookmarked , quite good internet internet site . 714408

  59. Superb weblog here! Also your web site loads up really quickly! What host are you making use of? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol xrumer 182912

  60. This post post created me believe. I will write something about this on my blog. 432907

  61. apk download says:

    Some genuinely fascinating info, nicely written and usually user genial . 332961

  62. Derick says:

    This is something that I have personally been struggling with for years. Let me ask you a question. Have you ever considered leasing space on your blog? Here is something that you might want to take a look at. It is a very efficient process of cranking out a portfolio of highly effective, highly targeted, and precisely positioned 1-page websites for 43 specific business categories and then quickly leasing those spaces to local businesses in your market. Get more info here.. http://tinyurl.com/7y5zr3y

  63. Excellent post man, maintain the good function, just shared this with the friendz 743325

  64. Shawana says:

    I know that there are many people who claim that they have the bestest secret weapon in the whole world or some push button traffic generator but the truth is, you really don’t need any magic at all. You can use Traffic Evolution to drive visitors to various affiliate offers as well as to your own offers. It’s really pretty simple but take a look fast before this particular link expires.. http://tinyurl.com/c3axtog

  65. הובלות says:

    educator, Sue. Although Sue had a list of discharge instructions in her hand, she paused and 462665

  66. 100 day loan says:

    Nice post. I was checking continuously this weblog and I am inspired! Very helpful info specifically the closing phase 🙂 I maintain such information much. I used to be seeking this certain information for a very lengthy time. Thanks and good luck.

  67. I always was interested in this subject and stock still am, regards for putting up.

  68. Some truly nice stuff on this web site , I it. 83092

  69. of course like your web-site however you need to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling issues and I to find it very bothersome to inform the reality however Ill surely come back again. 880465

  70. Carly says:

    Looking for an easy traffic solution? In about one hundredth of the time it takes to get traffic limping in through other sources, you can test out different niches and offers quickly and easily. And when you find the ones that are most profitable, you can scale up instantly and make a killing. Go ahead and see how this thing works.. http://tinyurl.com/c79q4co

  71. I believe 1 of your advertisings triggered my internet browser to resize, you could effectively want to put that on your blacklist. 827098

  72. Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. In concept I would like to spot in writing such as this moreover – spending time and actual effort to create a exceptional article but so what can I say I procrastinate alot by way of no indicates uncover a strategy to go completed. 827734

  73. You have observed very interesting details! ps decent internet site.

  74. Thank you for your info and respond to you. auto loans westvirginia 720327

  75. Excellent web site. Lots of useful information here. I am sending it to some buddies ans also sharing in delicious. And obviously, thanks to your effort!

  76. Chi says:

    I just found something pretty cool. It’s a prelaunch of a new Forex trading platform and to get things going, you can sign up for a free account and have $100 credited to your account. I did it myself and there seems to be absolutely no catch to it. Your $100 is professionally managed by their in-house staff of experienced forex traders in combination with the predictive analysis technology they are developing. It seems they just want to spead the word! Go check it out here… http://prelaunchx.com/x/forextex

  77. An fascinating discussion may possibly be worth comment. I believe you ought to write on this subject, it may well undoubtedly be a taboo topic but typically folks are not enough to dicuss on such topics. To a higher. Cheers 922818

  78. Real informative and wonderful bodily structure of written content, now that’s user pleasant (:.

  79. You have brought up a very fantastic details, regards for the post.

  80. Cheers for this excellent. I was wondering whether you were planning of publishing similar posts to this. .Keep up the excellent articles! 298645

  81. Badea says:

    An interesting discussion is worth comment. I think that you should write more on this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people are not enough to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

  82. Websites says:

    A person essentially help to make seriously articles I would state. This is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to make this particular publish incredible. Fantastic job! 27788

  83. fkawau says:

    I have been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours About Developmental Reading. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  84. I discovered your weblog web site on google and check several of your early posts. Continue to maintain up the really excellent operate. I just additional up your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Seeking forward to reading a lot more from you later on! 505575

  85. My cousin sent me here and I’m pleased! I will definitely bookmark it and come back!

  86. This blog is the greatest. You have a new fan! I can’t wait for the next update, saved!

  87. This is the precise About Developmental Reading journal for anyone who wants to move out out active this message. You mark so untold its almost exhausting to present with you (not that I truly would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new prolong on a subject thats been cursive nigh for years. Metropolis force, but major!

  88. baju bayi says:

    This is the reverse About Developmental Reading journal for anyone who wants to essay out out almost this topic. You respond so such its almost wearying to represent with you (not that I truly would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new revolve on a topic thats been codified roughly for life. Prissy personalty, simply great!

  89. baju bayi says:

    This is the turn About Developmental Reading diary for anyone who wants to act out out almost this theme. You request so untold its nearly tiring to reason with you (not that I real would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a subject thats been written nigh for geezerhood. Squeamish clog, just uppercase!

  90. baju bayi says:

    This is the penalize About Developmental Reading diary for anyone who wants to act out out most this message. You attending so some its nigh exhausting to contend with you (not that I truly would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new stunting on a message thats been holographic active for period. Nice clog, just great!

  91. Helpful blog posts and type of publishing. It looks like I’ll come back on this website down the road and discover what else you have got available 🙂 !!! So i’m really going to find
    if I are able to acquire some thing in respect to best online movie streaming 2012!
    !

  92. Tarah says:

    Are there other material correlated to this particular one?
    ! I’d want to examine a little more about this topic!!!! 🙂 Anyways, I like the postings, however I would like a bit more help and advice on movies unlimited free shipping coupon. Thanks alot : )!!!

  93. A motivating discussion is worth comment. I think that you should write
    more on this subject matter, it might not be a taboo matter
    but usually people don’t discuss these topics. To the next! All the best!!

  94. It is very rare at the moment to locate internet sites that offer information someone is looking for.
    I am glad to see that your blog share valued information that can help to
    tons of scaners. thank and keep writing!

  95. viki Saikia says:

    Hi there, I check your new stuff daily. Your
    story-telling style is awesome, keep it up!

  96. I got this web page from my buddy who told me on the topic of this site and now this time I am browsing this web page and reading very informative content at this place.

  97. I blog frequently and I really appreciate your information.

    This great article has really peaked my interest. I’m going to book mark your blog and keep checking for new details about once a week. I subscribed to your RSS feed too.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: